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BACKGROUND Heavy water ((2)H(2)O) labelling of DNA enables the measurement of low-level cell proliferation in vivo, using gas chromatography/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/P/IRMS), but the methodology has been too complex for widespread use. Here, we report a simplified method for measuring proliferation of malignant B cells in patients with(More)
Clonal evolution and outgrowth of cellular variants with additional chromosomal abnormalities are major causes of disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because new DNA lesions occur during S phase, proliferating cells are at the core of this problem. In this study, we used in vivo deuterium ((2)H) labeling of CLL cells to better(More)
The failure of chemotherapeutic regimens to eradicate cancers often results from the outgrowth of minor subclones with more dangerous genomic abnormalities or with self-renewing capacity. To explore such intratumor complexities in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we measured B-cell kinetics in vivo by quantifying deuterium ((2)H)-labeled cells as(More)
DNA replication occurs almost exclusively during S-phase of the cell cycle and represents a simple biochemical metric of cell division. Previous methods for measuring cell proliferation rates have important limitations. Here, we describe experimental protocols for measuring cell proliferation and death rates based on the incorporation of deuterium ((2)H)(More)
DNA replication during S-phase represents a biochemical metric of cell division. We present here a protocol for measuring very low rates of cell proliferation, on the basis of the incorporation of deuterium ((2)H) from heavy water ((2)H(2)O) into the deoxyribose moiety of purine deoxyribonucleotides in DNA of dividing cells, by use of gas(More)
This paper studies the effect of path delay on SCTP performance. It focuses on the SCTP fast retransmit algorithm and demonstrates that the performance in the current retransmission strategy will degrade acutely when the secondary path delay is less than the primary path delay at a certain level. The performance degradation is due to the disordered SACKs(More)
Groundwater vulnerability assessment has been an increasingly important environment management tool. The existing vulnerability assessment approaches are mostly index systems which have significant disadvantages. There need to be some quantitative studies on vulnerability indicators based on objective physical process study. In this study, we tried to do(More)
This paper studies the performance of multi-homed transport protocols tolerant of network failure. It evaluates the performance of different retransmission policies combined with path failure detection thresholds, infinite or finite receive buffers for various path bandwidths, delays and loss rate conditions through SCTP simulation. The results show that(More)
PURPOSE Prostate cancer is detected with increasing frequency but has a highly variable natural history and prognosis and active surveillance of men with low-risk prostate cancer would benefit greatly from minimally invasive methods to identify progression. We describe here two novel in vivo metrics of cell proliferation in men with prostate neoplasia. (More)
Free-standing mesoscale (340 mum x 30 mum x 20 mum) bend bars with an aspect ratio over 15:1 and an edge resolution as fine as a single grain diameter ( approximately 400 nm) have been fabricated in large numbers on refractory ceramic substrates by combining a novel powder processing approach with photoresist molds and an innovative lost-mold thermal(More)