Gregory G . Freund

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In response to a peripheral infection, innate immune cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour. When activation of the peripheral immune system continues unabated, such as during systemic infections, cancer or autoimmune diseases, the ensuing immune signalling to the brain can lead to an exacerbation of(More)
Acute cognitive disorders are common in elderly patients with peripheral infections but it is not clear why. Here, we injected old and young mice with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic an acute peripheral infection and separated the hippocampal neuronal cell layers from the surrounding hippocampal tissue by laser capture microdissection and(More)
Interleukin (IL)-10 is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and acts to limit clinical symptoms of stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, meningitis, and the behavioral changes that occur during bacterial infections. Expression of IL-10 is elevated during the course of most major diseases in the CNS and promotes survival of neurons and(More)
Chronic inflammation appears to play a critical role in type 2 diabetes and its complications. Here we tested the hypothesis that this inflammatory dysregulation affects the IL-1beta system and has functional consequences in the brain. Diabetic, db/db, and nondiabetic, db/+, mice were administered i.p. LPS, a potent cytokine inducer, at a dose of 100(More)
GH and IGF-I control over 80% of postnatal growth. We recently established that TNFalpha impairs the ability of IGF-I to increase protein synthesis and promote expression of myogenin in myoblasts. Here we extend these results by showing that ceramide, a second messenger in both TNFalpha and IL-1beta receptor signaling pathways, is a key downstream(More)
The prevalence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically and coincident with this upsurge is a growth in adverse childhood psychological conditions including impulsivity, depression, anxiety and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Due to confounds that exist when determining causality of childhood behavioral perturbations, controversy remains(More)
The cytokine IL-1 is critical to the pathogenesis of a variety of human conditions and diseases. Unlike most other cytokines, IL-1 is counterbalanced by two endogenous inhibitors. The functional significance of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) is well documented due to the clinical utilization of the recombinant human IL-1RA analog, anakinra. In contrast,(More)
BACKGROUND The leading cause of line-of-duty death among firefighters is sudden cardiac events. Platelets play a critical role in the formation of an occlusive thrombus during an ischemic event. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of firefighting on platelet number and aggregability. METHODS Apparently healthy male(More)
The clearance rate of inhaled aerosols of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) from the lungs provides a rapid, clinically useful, noninvasive index of pulmonary epithelial permeability. In order to identify a method that minimizes intrasubject and intersubject variability and thereby provides a reliable means to identify(More)
BACKGROUND To see if there is a difference in performance when students switch from traditional paper-and-pencil examinations to computer-based examinations, and to determine whether there are gender differences in student performance in these two examination formats. METHODS This study involved first year medical students at the University of Illinois at(More)