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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a heterogeneous cell population, are critical in orchestrating immunity and inflammation in the intestine, but whether ILCs influence immune responses or tissue homeostasis at other mucosal sites remains poorly characterized. Here we identify a population of lung-resident ILCs in mice and humans that expressed the alloantigen(More)
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent disease regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Emerging studies indicate that immune cells, including monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes, regulate metabolic homeostasis and are dysregulated in obesity. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can regulate adaptive immunity and eosinophil and alternatively(More)
The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here, we show that interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals.(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified family of heterogeneous immune cells that can be divided into three groups based on their differential developmental requirements and expression of effector cytokines. Among these, group 2 ILCs produce the type 2 cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 and promote type 2 inflammation in the lung and(More)
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is crucial for the maintenance and function of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are important in gut immunity. Because Ahr promotes T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation in vitro, it is reasonable to expect that Ahr would enhance Th17 cells in vivo. Instead, we show that Ahr deficiency caused increased intestinal(More)
The maintenance of barrier function at exposed surfaces of the mammalian body is essential for limiting exposure to environmental stimuli, preventing systemic dissemination of commensal and pathogenic microbes and retaining normal homeostasis of the entire body. Indeed, dysregulated barrier function is associated with many infectious and inflammatory(More)
Fetal CD4(+) lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells play a critical role in the development of lymphoid tissues. Recent studies identified that LTi cells persist in adults and are related to a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cells that have been implicated in inflammatory responses. However, whether LTi cells contribute to protective immunity(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently characterized family of immune cells that have critical roles in cytokine-mediated regulation of intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity. Alterations in ILC responses are associated with multiple chronic human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, implicating a role for ILCs in disease pathogenesis.(More)
Signals from commensal bacteria can influence immune cell development and susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria regulate protective immunity after exposure to systemic pathogens remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic-treated (ABX) mice exhibit impaired innate and(More)
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are innate lymphocytes that confer protective type 2 immunity during helminth infection and are also involved in allergic airway inflammation. Here we report that ILC2 development required T cell factor 1 (TCF-1, the product of the Tcf7 gene), a transcription factor also implicated in T cell lineage specification.(More)