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An assimilated data base of total column ozone measurements from satellites has been used to generate a set of indicators describing attributes of the Antarctic ozone hole for the period 1979 to 2003, including (i) daily measures of the area over Antarctica where ozone levels are below 150 DU, below 220 DU, more than 30% below 1979 to 1981 norms, and more(More)
The hydroxyl radical is the predominant atmospheric oxidant, responsible for removing a wide range of trace gases, including greenhouse gases, from the atmosphere. Determination of trends and variability in hydroxyl radical concentrations is critical to understanding whether the 'cleansing' properties of the atmosphere are changing. The variability in(More)
[1] The 11-year solar cycles in ozone and temperature are examined using new simulations of coupled chemistry climate models. The results show a secondary maximum in stratospheric tropical ozone, in agreement with satellite observations and in contrast with most previously published simulations. The mean model response varies by up to about 2.5% in ozone(More)
Comprehensive measures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, concurrent activities and sun-protective practices are needed to develop and evaluate skin cancer prevention and sun protection interventions. The UVR exposures of 345 primary schoolchildren at 23 schools around New Zealand were measured using electronic UVR monitors for 1-week periods over 12(More)
An assimilated data base of total column ozone measurements from satellites has been used to generate a set of indicators describing attributes of the Antarctic ozone hole for the period 1979 to 2003, including (i) daily measures of the area over Antarctica where ozone levels are below 150 DU, below 220 DU, more than 30% below 1979 to 5 1981 norms, and more(More)
[1] October mean total column ozone data from four Antarctic stations form the basis for understanding the evolution of the ozone hole since 1960. While these stations show similar emergence of the ozone hole from 1960 to 1980, the records are divergent in the last two decades. The effects of long‐term changes in vortex shape and location are considered by(More)
The trend in stratospheric NO 2 column at the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) station of Jungfraujoch (46.5 • N, 8.0 • E) is assessed using ground-based FTIR and zenith-scattered visible sunlight SAOZ measurements over the period 1990 to 2009 as well as a composite satellite nadir data set constructed from ERS-2/GOME,(More)
The erythemally weighted (UV) irradiance below the severely depleted Arctic vortices in spring 1996 and 1997 were substantially elevated. On average the UV increased 36 and 33% relative to the 1979–1981 mean assuming clear skies from day 80–100 in 1996 and 1997, respectively. On clear sky days large regions of the Arctic expe-5 rienced maximum UV increases(More)