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Hard vs. Soft Law: Alternatives, Complements and Antagonists in International Governance
This article addresses the interaction of hard and soft law in a fragmented international law system. This issue is increasingly important in a world where functional international regimes… Expand
Hard Versus Soft Law in International Security
The use and choice of hard and soft law in international governance has been the subject of ever-increasing scholarly interest. This law and social science literature assesses the relative strengths… Expand
The Challenges of WTO Law: Strategies for Developing Country Adaptation
- Gregory C. Shaffer
- 1 July 2006
Although developing countries vary significantly in terms of trading profiles, they generally face three primary challenges if they are to participate effectively in the WTO dispute settlement… Expand
Access to Justice in the World Trade Organization: The Case for a Small Claims Procedure?
The current dispute settlement system of the World Trade Organization (WTO) creates a particular challenge for WTO Members with limited exports since litigation costs are more or less independent of… Expand
Risk Regulation, GMOs, and the Limits of Deliberation
Over the past two decades, the Council of Ministers has been drawn into a political maelstrom - the regulation of genetically modified (GM) foods and crops. Beginning with the 1990 Directive on the… Expand
A Breakthrough with the TPP: The Tobacco Carveout.
- S. Puig, Gregory C. Shaffer
- Political Science, Medicine
- Yale journal of health policy, law, and ethics
- 20 June 2016
This comment discusses the tobacco ‘carve-out’, an important trade policy breakthrough. This year public health advocates have struck a blow against tobacco companies, which will be barred from… Expand
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations: Hard and Soft Law
Varieties of New Legal Realism: Can a New World Order Prompt a New Legal Theory?
In 1930, during the Great Depression, Professor Karl Llewellyn declared in the Harvard Law Review that “ferment” was abroad in the land and legal scholarship, declaring “realism” a powerful scholarly… Expand
Hard and Soft Law: What Have We Learned?
Political scientists and legal scholars have increasingly explored the concepts of hard and soft law in international governance. In this paper for a volume on International Law and International… Expand