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RNA interference (RNAi) has become a research tool to control gene expression in various organisms and holds potential as a new therapeutic strategy. The mechanism of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated RNAi involves target mRNA cleavage and destruction in the cytoplasm. We investigated siRNA-mediated induction of RNAi in the nucleus of human cells.(More)
A comprehensive analysis of the structure of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS; EC 1.14.13.39) mRNA species revealed NOS1 to be the most structurally diverse human gene described to date in terms of promoter usage. Nine unique exon 1 variants are variously used for transcript initiation in diverse tissues, and each is expressed from a unique 5'-flanking(More)
APOBEC3G is an antiviral host factor capable of inhibiting the replication of both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses as well as hepatitis B, a DNA virus that replicates through an RNA intermediate. To gain insight into the mechanism whereby APOBEC3G restricts retroviral replication, we investigated the subcellular localization of the protein. Herein, we(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved mechanism in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) guide the degradation of cognate RNAs, but also promote heterochromatin assembly at repetitive DNA elements such as centromeric repeats. However, the full extent of RNAi functions and its endogenous targets have not been explored. Here we show that, in the fission(More)
Small regulatory RNA repertoires in biological samples are heterogeneous mixtures that may include species arising from varied biosynthetic pathways and modification events. Small RNA profiling and discovery approaches ought to capture molecules in a way that is representative of expression level. It follows that the effects of RNA modifications on(More)
RNA interference is a conserved pathway of sequence-specific gene silencing that depends on small guide RNAs and the action of proteins assembled in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Minimally, the action of RISC requires the endonucleolytic slicer activity of Argonaute2 (Ago2) directed to RNA targets whose sequences are complementary to(More)
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has become a powerful tool for the detection of and sequence characterization of microRNAs (miRNA) and other small RNAs (sRNA). Unfortunately, the use of HTS data to determine the relative quantity of different miRNAs in a sample has been shown to be inconsistent with quantitative PCR and Northern Blot results. Several(More)
Advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the constitutive and regulated expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA expression present a new level of complexity to the study of endothelial gene regulation in health and disease. Recent studies highlight the contribution of both transcription and RNA stability to(More)
The processes by which cells sense and respond to ambient oxygen concentration are fundamental to cell survival and function, and they commonly target gene regulatory events. To date, however, little is known about the link between the microRNA pathway and hypoxia signaling. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo that chronic hypoxia impairs Dicer (DICER1)(More)
The basis for the endothelial cell-restricted expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is not known. While transgenic promoter/reporter mice demonstrated endothelium cell-specific eNOS expression, we found robust expression of episomal eNOS promoter/reporter constructs in cell types that do not express the native eNOS transcript. To explore(More)