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High density molecular linkage maps, comprised of more than 1000 markers with an average spacing between markers of approximately 1.2 cM (ca. 900 kb), have been constructed for the tomato and potato genomes. As the two maps are based on a common set of probes, it was possible to determine, with a high degree of precision, the breakpoints corresponding to 5(More)
BACKGROUND Sepsis represents a substantial health care burden, and there is limited epidemiologic information about the demography of sepsis or about the temporal changes in its incidence and outcome. We investigated the epidemiology of sepsis in the United States, with specific examination of race and sex, causative organisms, the disposition of patients,(More)
The Pto gene in tomato confers resistance to races of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato that carry the avirulence gene avrPto. A yeast artificial chromosome clone that spans the Pto region was identified and used to probe a leaf complementary DNA (cDNA) library. A cDNA clone was isolated that represents a gene family, at least six members of which genetically(More)
Successful pathogens have evolved strategies to interfere with host immune systems. For example, the ubiquitous plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects two sequence-distinct effectors, AvrPto and AvrPtoB, to intercept convergent innate immune responses stimulated by multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). However, the direct host targets(More)
Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals use a type III secretion system to deliver diverse virulence-associated 'effector' proteins into the host cell. The mechanisms by which these effectors act are mostly unknown; however, they often promote disease by suppressing host immunity. One type III effector, AvrPtoB, expressed by the plant pathogen(More)
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed gene transcript suppression technique for characterizing the function of plant genes. The approach involves cloning a short sequence of a targeted plant gene into a viral delivery vector. The vector is used to infect a young plant, and in a few weeks natural defense mechanisms of the plant directed(More)
Plants and animals possess innate immune systems to prevent infections and are effectively "nonhosts" for most potential pathogens. The molecular mechanisms underlying nonhost immunity in plants remain obscure. In Arabidopsis, nonhost/nonpathogenic Pseudomonas syringae sustains but pathogenic P. syringae suppresses early MAMP (microbe-associated molecular(More)
Many disease resistance (R) proteins of plants detect the presence of disease-causing bacteria, viruses, or fungi by recognizing specific pathogen effector molecules that are produced during the infection process. Effectors are often pathogen proteins that probably evolved to subvert various host processes for promotion of the pathogen life cycle. Five(More)
In tomato, the Pto kinase confers resistance to bacterial speck disease by recognizing the expression of a corresponding avirulence gene, avrPto, in the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified three genes, Pti4, Pti5 and Pti6, that encode proteins that physically interact with the Pto kinase. Pti4/5/6(More)
The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) may play a major role in opiate dependence, and central NMDA receptors are reported to influence opiate tolerance and dependence. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the selective mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) on membrane properties of rat NAcc neurons and on events mediated by(More)