Gregory B. Hammer

Learn More
BACKGROUND Fenoldopam mesylate, a selective dopamine1-receptor agonist, is used by intravenous infusion to treat hypertension in adults. Fenoldopam is not approved by the FDA for use in children; reports describing its use in pediatrics are limited. In a multi-institutional, placebo controlled, double-blind, multi-dose trial we determined the(More)
PURPOSE (1) To define the onset and offset of the blood-pressure-lowering effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for use in developing instructions for dose titration in children undergoing a surgical or medical procedure, and (2) to assess the safety of SNP administration in pediatric patients requiring controlled reduction of blood pressure. METHODS We(More)
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been widely used to control blood pressure in infants and children. The goals of this analysis were to develop models that describe the hemodynamic response to SNP dosing in pediatric patients; examine sources of variation in dose-response, defining age, and size dependencies; and determine vulnerable populations or patient(More)
The objective of this study was to characterize morphine glucuronidation in infants and children following cardiac surgery for possible treatment individualization in this population. Twenty children aged 3 days to 6 years, admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit after congenital heart surgery, received an intravenous (IV) loading dose of(More)
Anesthetic neurotoxicity has been a hot topic in anesthesia for the past decade. It is of special interest to pediatric anesthesiologists. A subgroup of children potentially at greater risk for anesthetic neurotoxicity, based on a prolonged anesthetic exposure early in development, are those children receiving anesthesia for surgical repair of congenital(More)
BACKGROUND Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a potent vasodilator that has been used to induce deliberate hypotension in children during surgery involving significant blood loss, including craniofacial and spinal fusion procedures. SNP metabolism liberates cyanide, which may cause interference with cellular energy metabolism, leading to metabolic acidosis and(More)
Dexmedetomidine, the D-enantiomer of medetomidine, is among the most potent sedative drugs known. It is also one of the best understood in terms of its molecular and cellular mechanisms. Its sedative (and probably its neuroprotective) effects are mediated by subtype A of the α 2 adrenergic receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor. Acting as an agonist at this(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to provide a model-based analysis of the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS We studied nine patients aged 0.5 to 4 years who received a continuous remifentanil infusion via a computer-controlled infusion pump during cardiac(More)
  • 1