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Toxic metabolites of oxygen are generated normally by aerobic metabolism in cells and this generation can significantly increase in certain pathologic conditions. When endogenous antioxidant defense capabilities are exceeded by this oxidant flux, tissue injury occurs. This process can be intercepted pharmacologically at different levels with agents that(More)
Endothelial cell ICAM-1 upregulation in response to TNF-alpha is mediated in part by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the endothelial membrane-associated NADPH oxidase and occurs maximally after 4 h as the synthesis of new protein is required. However, thrombin-stimulated P-selectin upregulation is bimodal, the first peak occurring within minutes.(More)
Postischemic renal failure is a severe problem following cadaveric renal transplantation, especially if the kidney has been harvested from a non-heartbeating donor, and thereby subjected to periods of both warm and cold ischemia. It is well established that a substantial component of postischemic injury is produced by oxygen-derived free radicals generated(More)
Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of infection, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which together account for most obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Decreased expression of leptin or of functional leptin receptors results in hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure, and obesity. It is unclear, however, whether defective(More)
Tissue injury at reperfusion has been reported after partial ischemia. However, previous attempts to demonstrate a component of injury caused by reperfusion after total ischemia have failed. This study was performed to evaluate the hypothesis that in such situations the extent of the tissue injury caused by ischemia itself prevented detection of a(More)
Oxygen-derived free radicals and other reactive oxygen metabolites have emerged as a common pathway of tissue injury in a wide variety of otherwise disparate disease processes. This has given rise to the hope that efforts directed towards the pharmacologic control of free radical-mediated tissue injury (Reilly, P.M., Schiller, H. J. and Bulkley, G. B.(More)
Highly toxic metabolites of oxygen are generated normally by aerobic metabolism in most cells, and this generation is often greatly increased in pathologic conditions. When this oxidant flux exceeds the capability of the multiple endogenous antioxidant mechanisms, tissue injury ensues. The pharmacologic modification of this injury process, with agents that(More)
  • G B Bulkley
  • 1987
Tissue damage as a consequence of ischemia is a major medical problem in an industrialized society. Whereas the conventional view has attributed this injury process to ischemia itself, recent studies have found that a variable, but often substantial proportion of the injury is caused by toxic oxygen metabolites that are generated from xanthine oxidase at(More)
OBJECTIVES To provide an overview of the mechanisms of free radical-mediated reperfusion injury and to review the available antioxidant agents and strategies available to prevent or ameliorate this injury. DATA SOURCES Previous studies performed in our own laboratory, as well as a computer-assisted search of the English language literature (MEDLINE, 1966(More)