Gregory B. Bulkley

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Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of infection, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which together account for most obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Decreased expression of leptin or of functional leptin receptors results in hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure, and obesity. It is unclear, however, whether defective(More)
The mesenteric hemodynamic response to circulatory shock is characteristic and profound; this vasoconstrictive response disproportionately affects both the mesenteric organs and the organism as a whole. Vasoconstriction of post-capillary mesenteric venules and veins, mediated largely by the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, can(More)
Tissue injury at reperfusion has been reported after partial ischemia. However, previous attempts to demonstrate a component of injury caused by reperfusion after total ischemia have failed. This study was performed to evaluate the hypothesis that in such situations the extent of the tissue injury caused by ischemia itself prevented detection of a(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The mesenteric hemodynamic response to circulatory shock is substantial and asymmetrical; the vasoconstrictive response disproportionately affects the mesenteric organs. The cardiac output is sustained partially, at no cost in nutrient flow to the mesenteric organs, by vasoconstriction of the mesenteric veins, resulting in the(More)
Early recognition of intestinal strangulation in patients with small bowel obstruction is essential to allow safe nonoperative management of selected patients. We prospectively evaluated preoperative diagnostic parameters as well as the preoperative judgement of the senior attending surgeon for the determination of the presence or absence of intestinal(More)
The homeostatic response of complex eukaryotes to the challenge of environmental stress includes the induction of several programs of gene expression; among them are those for the acute phase genes and those for the heat shock genes. In some systems, the heat shock response, which is often elicited by more severe stimuli, preempts the acute phase response,(More)
Evidence is presented that supports a role of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of various disorders of the digestive system. In the intestine, there is evidence that oxygen radicals play an important role in the endothelial and epithelial damage associated with certain models of ischemia. The mechanism for superoxide production in this condition(More)
Highly toxic metabolites of oxygen are generated normally by aerobic metabolism in most cells, and this generation is often greatly increased in pathologic conditions. When this oxidant flux exceeds the capability of the multiple endogenous antioxidant mechanisms, tissue injury ensues. The pharmacologic modification of this injury process, with agents that(More)
Toxic metabolites of oxygen are generated normally by aerobic metabolism in cells and this generation can significantly increase in certain pathologic conditions. When endogenous antioxidant defense capabilities are exceeded by this oxidant flux, tissue injury occurs. This process can be intercepted pharmacologically at different levels with agents that(More)