Despite its potential role in the evolution of complex phenotypes, the detection of negative (purifying) and positive selection on noncoding regulatory sequence has been elusive because of the inherent difficulty in predicting the functional consequences of mutations on noncoding sequence. Because the functioning of regulatory sequence depends upon both… (More)
BACKGROUND The accuracy by which phenotype can be reproduced by genotype potentially is important in determining the stability, environmental sensitivity, and evolvability of morphology and other phenotypic traits. Because two sides of an individual represent independent development of the phenotype under identical genetic and environmental conditions,… (More)
Marta Wayne for use of her microscope and digital camera; Glenn Hall (Bee Lab, University of Florida) for a plentiful supply of bees; and the Department of Entomology and Nematology (University of Florida) for use of its environmental chambers. I thank Callie Babbitt for help in manuscript preparation and much additional love and support.