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PREFACE The impetus for this report came from a workshop organized by the Center for Sustainable Systems entitled " A Life Cycle Approach to Sustainable Agriculture Indicators, " held February 26-27, 1999. The workshop brought together 60 participants including organic and conventional farmers, agri-business representatives, state and national level(More)
Travel patterns from survey data are combined with naturalistic drive cycles. More realistic PHEV energy modeling using these synthesized real-world drive cycles. Methodology is demonstrated for PHEVs in Michigan but applicable for other regions. Energy and emissions findings have major implications for PHEV standards and policy. a b s t r a c t Plug-in(More)
In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA(More)
Primary aluminum ingot is a globally traded commodity, and large regional differences in technology and electricity fuel mixes exist among the industry's smelters. A life cycle assessment model is developed to calculate absolute emissions and emissions intensities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the production, trade, and consumption of primary ingot in six(More)
Algae are an appealing source for bioenergy due to their high yields relative to terrestrial energy crops. The high cost of production, however, has prohibited commercialization. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a technology that converts more of the algae into oil than alternative technologies, thereby reducing the amount of expensive pond infrastructure and(More)
Supplying adequate human nutrition within ecosystem carrying capacities is a key element in the global environmental sustainability challenge. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used effectively to evaluate the environmental impacts of food production value chains and to identify opportunities for targeted improvement strategies. Dietary choices and(More)
We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall(More)
Although recent progress in automotive technology has reduced exhaust emissions per mile for new cars, the continuing use of inefficient, higher-polluting old cars as well as increasing vehicle miles driven are undermining the benefits of this progress. As a way to address the "inefficient old vehicle" contribution to this problem, a novel life cycle(More)