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Detection of cytoplasmic DNA represents one of the most fundamental mechanisms of the innate immune system to sense the presence of microbial pathogens. Moreover, erroneous detection of endogenous DNA by the same sensing mechanisms has an important pathophysiological role in certain sterile inflammatory conditions. The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein(More)
Cytosolic DNA arising from intracellular bacterial or viral infections is a powerful pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that leads to innate immune host defence by the production of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines. Recognition of cytosolic DNA by the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) induces the production of(More)
Cell growth is regulated during RNA polymerase (Pol) I transcription initiation by the conserved factor Rrn3/TIF-IA in yeast/humans. Here we provide a structure-function analysis of Rrn3 based on a combination of structural biology with in vivo and in vitro functional assays. The Rrn3 crystal structure reveals a unique HEAT repeat fold and a surface serine(More)
Nuclear actin-related proteins (Arps) are subunits of several chromatin remodelers, but their molecular functions within these complexes are unclear. We report the crystal structure of the INO80 complex subunit Arp8 in its ATP-bound form. Human Arp8 has several insertions in the conserved actin fold that explain its inability to polymerize. Most remarkably,(More)
Single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at the lagging strand of the replication fork in Escherichia coli cells. This protein is essential for the survival of the E.coli cell, presumably because it shields the ssDNA and holds it in a suitable conformation for replication by DNA polymerase III. In this study we(More)
The highly conserved bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) proteins play an important role in DNA replication, repair and recombination and are essential for the survival of the cell. They are functional as tetramers, in which four OB(oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding)-folds act as DNA-binding domains. The protomer of the SSB protein from the(More)
The quality of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) has improved dramatically in recent years, but high-performing ratiometric indicators are still rare. Here we describe a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium biosensors with a reduced number of calcium binding sites per sensor. These 'Twitch' sensors are based on(More)
Swi2/Snf2-type ATPases regulate genome-associated processes such as transcription, replication and repair by catalysing the disruption, assembly or remodelling of nucleosomes or other protein-DNA complexes. It has been suggested that ATP-driven motor activity along DNA disrupts target protein-DNA interactions in the remodelling reaction. However, the(More)
Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) proteins are vital for a wide range of processes including chromosome structure and dynamics, gene regulation and DNA repair. Eukaryotes have three SMC complexes, consisting of heterodimeric pairs of six different SMC proteins along with several specific regulatory subunits. In addition to their other functions,(More)
The majority of mitochondrial proteins are targeted to mitochondria by N-terminal presequences and use the TIM23 complex for their translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. During import, translocation through the channel in the inner membrane is coupled to the ATP-dependent action of an Hsp70-based import motor at the matrix face. How these(More)