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FK506 (tacrolimus) is a secondary metabolite with a potent immunosuppressive activity, currently registered for use as immunosuppressant after organ transplantation. FK506 and FK520 are biogenetically related natural products that are synthesized by combined polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase systems. The entire gene cluster for(More)
Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family), about 250 metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues), 25(More)
Antimicrobial resistance and the shortage of novel antibiotics have led to an urgent need for new antibacterial drug leads. Several existing natural product scaffolds (including chelocardins) have not been developed because their suboptimal pharmacological properties could not be addressed at the time. It is demonstrated here that reviving such compounds(More)
FK506, a widely used immunosuppressant, is produced by industrial fermentation processes using various Streptomyces species. Independently of the strain, structurally related compound FK520 is co-produced, resulting in complex and costly isolation procedures. In this paper, we report a chemobiosynthetic approach for exclusive biosynthesis of FK506. This(More)
The genome of Trypanosoma cruzi, the Protozoan parasite causing the American Trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, contains two genes, TcMCA3 and TcMCA5, with homology to those encoding metacaspases, distantly related to the caspases involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in higher eukaryotes. TcMCA3 is present in the CL Brener clone at 16 copies per haploid(More)
FK506 (Tacrolimus) is an important immunosuppressant, produced by industrial biosynthetic processes using various Streptomyces species. Considering the complex structure of FK506, it is reasonable to expect complex regulatory networks controlling its biosynthesis. Regulatory elements, present in gene clusters can have a profound influence on the final yield(More)
BACKGROUND Erythromycin is a medically important antibiotic, biosynthesized by the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Genes encoding erythromycin biosynthesis are organized in a gene cluster, spanning over 60 kbp of DNA. Most often, gene clusters encoding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites contain regulatory genes. In contrast, the erythromycin(More)
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are destructive joint diseases that involve the loss of articular cartilage. Degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix is believed to occur due to imbalance between the catabolic and anabolic processes of resident chondrocytes. Previous work has suggested that various lysosomal cysteine cathepsins participate in(More)