Gregor Behnke

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We present an approach for integrating ontological reasoning and planning within cognitive systems. Patterns and mechanisms that suitably link planning domains and interrelated knowledge in an ontology are devised. In particular, this enables the use of (standard) ontology reasoning for extending a (hierarchical) planning domain. Furthermore, explanations(More)
Theoretical results on HTN planning are mostly related to the plan existence problem. In this paper, we study the structure of the generated plans in terms of the language they produce. We show that such languages are always context-sensitive. Furthermore we identify certain subclasses of HTN planning problems which generate either regular or context-free(More)
The integration of the various specialized components of cognitive systems poses a challenge, in particular for those architectures that combine planning, inference, and human-computer interaction (HCI). An approach is presented that exploits a single source of common knowledge contained in an ontology. Based upon the knowledge contained in it, specialized(More)
Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning is a formalism that can express constraints which cannot easily be expressed by classical (non-hierarchical) planning approaches. It enables reasoning about procedural structures and domainspecific search control knowledge. Yet the cornucopia of modern heuristic search techniques remains largely unincorporated in(More)
In classical planning it is easy to verify if a given sequence of actions is a solution to a planning problem. It has to be checked whether the actions are applicable in the given order and if a goal state is reached after executing them. In this paper we show that verifying whether a plan is a solution to an HTN planning problem is much harder. More(More)
Technical systems evolve from simple dedicated task solvers to cooperative and competent assistants, helping the user with increasingly complex and demanding tasks. For this, they may proactively take over some of the users responsibilities and help to find or reach a solution for the user’s task at hand, using e.g., Artificial Intelligence (AI) Planning(More)
From a theoretical perspective, judging the expressivity of planning formalisms helps to understand the relationship of different representations and to infer theoretical properties. From a practical point of view, it is important to be able to choose the best formalism for a problem at hand, or to ponder the consequences of introducing new representation(More)
Modern technical devices are often too complex for many users to be able to use them to their full extent. Based on planning technology, we are able to provide advanced user assistance for operating technical devices. We present a system that assists a human user in setting up a complex home theater consisting of several HiFi devices. For a human user, the(More)
Interaction with users is a key capability of planning systems that are applied in real-world settings. Such a system has to be able to react appropriately to requests issued by its users. Most of these systems are based on a generated plan that is continually criticised by him, resulting in a mixed-initiative planning system. We present several practically(More)
There are several formalizations for hierarchical planning. Many of them allow to specify preconditions and effects for compound tasks. They can be used, e.g., to assist during the modeling process by ensuring that the decomposition methods’ plans “implement” the compound tasks’ intended meaning. This is done based on so-called legality criteria that relate(More)