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In primary infection, CD8(+) T cells are important for clearance of infectious herpes simplex virus (HSV) from sensory ganglia. In this study, evidence of CD4(+) T-cell-mediated clearance of infectious HSV type 1 (HSV-1) from neural tissues was also detected. In immunocompetent mice, HSV-specific CD4(+) T cells were present in sensory ganglia and spinal(More)
A murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was utilized to examine the development of the local T cell response in the genital mucosa and draining genital lymph nodes (gLN). HSV-specific cytokine-secreting T cells were detected in the gLN 4 days postintravaginal inoculation but(More)
Intravaginal inoculation of mice with an attenuated strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) resulted in vigorous HSV-specific immune responses that protected against subsequent challenge with fully virulent HSV-2 strains. Even in the presence of high titers of HSV-specific Ab, T cell-dependent mechanisms were required for protection of the vaginal(More)
The ability of antibody (Ab) to modulate HSV pathogenesis is well recognized but the mechanisms by which HSV-specific IgG antibodies protect against genital HSV-2 disease are not well understood. The requirement for Ab interactions with Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR) in protection was examined using a murine model of genital HSV-2 infection. IgG antibodies(More)
The tissue sites of long-term herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-specific antibody production in mice and guinea pigs were identified. In addition to secondary lymphoid tissue and bone marrow, HSV-specific plasma cells were detected in spinal cords of mice up to 10 months after intravaginal inoculation with a thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-2 strain and in(More)
The requirement for interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) in resolution of an HSV-2 vaginal infection and the cellular sources of this cytokine in the vaginal mucosa were assessed. IFN gamma levels in vaginal secretions peaked on Days 2 and 5 following HSV-2 inoculation. Natural killer (NK) cell depletion greatly diminished the early production of IFN gamma but had(More)
We recently reported that immunization with RepliVAX WN, a single-cycle West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine, protected mice against WNV challenge. We have extended these studies by characterizing the RepliVAX WN-elicited antibody and T cell responses. WNV-specific IgG antibody responses comprised predominantly of IgG(2c) and IgG(2b) subclasses were detected 8(More)
The effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on immune function have been extensively reported. The effects are dependent on concentration and duration of exposure and potential differences in signaling between the known E2 receptors, estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and ERbeta. Through the use of ER-deficient mice, we and others have begun to demonstrate the role of(More)
In recent clinical trials, a vaccine that contained herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) and the adjuvant AS04 afforded HSV-seronegative women significant protection against HSV-2 genital disease and limited protection against infection. Similarly, in guinea pigs, immunization with the vaccine provided significant protection against(More)
BACKGROUND Because topical microbicides designed to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases may be applied frequently, it is important to ensure product safety as well as efficacy. A murine model was developed to test for induction of inflammatory responses following application of candidate microbicides. GOAL A comparison was made of the(More)