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Digital image enhancement has been proposed as an aid for the visually impaired. The capability of two enhancement techniques to improve recognition of images by patients with central scotoma or cataracts was evaluated using image-processing simulations and direct patient testing. Enhancements and simulations were based on measurements of contrast(More)
Gliogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system does not cease abruptly like neurogenesis. Instead, glia accumulate over a time period that extends into adulthood. To determine whether new glial cells in the adult cortex arise from resident progenitors and to determine the glial types to which these progenitors give rise to, cells in the perinatal(More)
Models of the spatial response of human vision are important for applied work, but the available contrast sensitivity function (CSF) data vary widely due to the diverse spatiotemporal stimuli used over the years. To assist selection, this paper: (1) reports measurements of the effects on the CSF of varying the spatial and temporal windows of grating(More)
CNS trauma or disease induces a constellation of changes in the glia comprising the condition known as reactive gliosis. At present, little is known regarding the nature of the injury signals and the specific consequences of their actions. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces acute phase proteins in liver and increases astrocytic glial fibrillary(More)
The developmental origin of microglia remains a controversial subject. While it is generally accepted that primitive fetal macrophages that migrate from the yolk sac to the brain become microglia, it also has been argued that there is a second source of microglia that are of neuroectodermal lineage. To determine whether progenitors in the dorsolateral(More)
During development, the output of the subventricular zone (SZ) becomes increasingly restricted, yet it still harbors multipotential progenitors. The output of the SZ could be gated by selectively eliminating inappropriately specified progenitors. Using in situ end-labeling (ISEL) to identify apoptotic cells, nearly 60% of the ISEL(+) cells in the juvenile(More)
Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) have experienced little improvement in overall survival, and standard treatment has not advanced beyond platinum-based combination chemotherapy, during the past 30 years. To understand the drivers of clinical phenotypes better, here we use whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from(More)
Many investigators studying oligodendrocytes in vitro have sought out cell lines because it has been difficult to obtain sufficient numbers of primary oligodendrocytes for study. This paper describes three methodological improvements that facilitate culturing oligodendrocytes. We show that by detaching progenitor cells using papain instead of trypsin the(More)