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As clock frequency increases and feature size decreases, clock distribution and wire delays present a growing challenge to the designers of singly-clocked, globally synchronous systems. We describe an alternative approach, which we call a Multiple Clock Domain (MCD) processor, in which the chip is divided into several (coarse-grained) clock domains, within(More)
We describe the design, analysis, and performance of an on--line algorithm to dynamically control the frequency/voltage of a Multiple Clock Domain (MCD) microarchitecture. The MCD microarchitecture allows the frequency/voltage of microprocessor regions to be adjusted independently and dynamically, allowing energy savings when the frequency of some regions(More)
A Multiple Clock Domain (MCD) processor addresses the challenges of clock distribution and power dissipation by dividing a chip into several (coarse-grained) clock domains, allowing frequency and voltage to be reduced in domains that are not currently on the application's critical path. Given a reconfiguration mechanism capable of choosing appropriate times(More)
Energy efficiency in microarchitectures has become a necessity. Significant dynamic energy savings can be realized for adaptive storage structures such as caches, issue queues, and register files by disabling unnecessary storage resources. Prior studies have analyzed individual structures and their control. A common theme to these studies is exploration of(More)
Microprocessors are traditionally designed to provide "best overall" performance across a wide range of applications and operating environments. Several groups have proposed hardware techniques that save energy by "downsizing" hardware resources that are underutilized by the current application phase. Others have proposed a different energy-saving approach:(More)
We analyze an Alpha 21264-like Globally–Asynchronous, Locally–Synchronous (GALS) processor organized as a Multiple Clock Domain (MCD) microarchitecture and identify the architectural features of the processor that influence the limited performance degradation measured. We show that the out-of-order superscalar execution features of a processor, which allow(More)
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