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Mice lacking TGF-beta 3 exhibit an incompletely penetrant failure of the palatal shelves to fuse leading to cleft palate. The defect appears to result from impaired adhesion of the apposing medial edge epithelia of the palatal shelves and subsequent elimination of the mid-line epithelial seam. No craniofacial abnormalities were observed. This result(More)
BACKGROUND Tropomyosin (TM), an essential actin-binding protein, is central to the control of calcium-regulated striated muscle contraction. Although TPM1alpha (also called alpha-TM) is the predominant TM isoform in human hearts, the precise TM isoform composition remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS In this study, we quantified for the first time the(More)
The growth and differentiation factor transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGFbeta2) is thought to play important roles in multiple developmental processes. Targeted disruption of the TGFbeta2 gene was undertaken to determine its essential role in vivo. TGFbeta2-null mice exhibit perinatal mortality and a wide range of developmental defects for a single gene(More)
Vascular tone control is essential in blood pressure regulation, shock, ischemia-reperfusion, inflammation, vessel injury/repair, wound healing, temperature regulation, digestion, exercise physiology, and metabolism. Here we show that a well-known growth factor, FGF2, long thought to be involved in many developmental and homeostatic processes, including(More)
Tropomyosin (TM) is an integral component of the thin filament in muscle fibers and is involved in regulating actin-myosin interactions. TM is encoded by a family of four alternatively spliced genes that display highly conserved nucleotide and amino acid sequences. To assess the functional and developmental significance of alpha-TM, the murine alpha-TM gene(More)
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1)-null mice die fro complications due to an early-onset multifocal inflammatory disorder. We show here that cardiac cells are hyperproliferative and that intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is elevated. To determine which phenotypes are primarily caused by a deficiency in TGF beta 1 from those that are(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of 18 adult New Zealand White rabbits. These cells were culture expanded, suspended in type I collagen gel, and implanted into a surgically induced defect in the donor s right patellar tendon. A cell-free collagen gel was implanted into an identical control defect in the left patellar tendon.(More)
Multiple isoforms of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) are expressed at high levels in gastric epithelium, but the physiological role of individual isoforms is unclear. To study the function of NHE2, which is expressed in mucous, zymogenic, and parietal cells, we prepared mice with a null mutation in the NHE2 gene. Homozygous null mutants exhibit no overt disease(More)
Tropomyosins comprise a family of actin-binding proteins that are central to the control of calcium-regulated striated muscle contraction. To understand the functional role of tropomyosin isoform differences in cardiac muscle, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress striated muscle-specific beta-tropomyosin in the adult heart. Nine transgenic lines(More)
To investigate the functional consequences of a tropomyosin (TM) mutation associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC), we generated transgenic mice that express mutant alpha-TM in the adult heart. The missense mutation, which results in the substitution of asparagine for aspartic acid at amino acid position 175, occurs in a troponin T binding(More)