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Transgenic mice overexpressing the 695-amino acid isoform of human Alzheimer beta-amyloid (Abeta) precursor protein containing a Lys670 --> Asn, Met671 --> Leu mutation had normal learning and memory in spatial reference and alternation tasks at 3 months of age but showed impairment by 9 to 10 months of age. A fivefold increase in Abeta(1-40) and a 14-fold(More)
Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical stimulants of inflammation. Likewise, in the AD brain damaged(More)
Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is characterized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemiological studies suggest reduced AD risk associates with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw(More)
The brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) shows a chronic inflammatory response characterized by activated glial cells and increased expression of cytokines and complement factors surrounding amyloid deposits. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a reduced risk for AD in patients using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), prompting(More)
Both insulin resistance (type II diabetes) and beta-amyloid (Abeta) oligomers are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigate the role of Abeta oligomer-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation leading to phosphorylation and degradation of the adaptor protein insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). IRS-1 couples insulin and other(More)
Defects in dendritic spines are common to several forms of cognitive deficits, including mental retardation and Alzheimer disease. Because mutation of p21-activated kinase (PAK) can lead to mental retardation and because PAK-cofilin signaling is critical in dendritic spine morphogenesis and actin dynamics, we hypothesized that the PAK pathway is involved in(More)
BACKGROUND Amyloid senile plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles are neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease that accumulate in the cortical regions of the brain in persons with mild cognitive impairment who are at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Noninvasive methods to detect these abnormal proteins are potentially useful in developing surrogate(More)
Microglial activation is central to the inflammatory response in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). A recently described mouse line, Tg(HuAPP695.K670N/M671L)2576, expressing human amyloid precursor protein with a familial AD gene mutation, age-related amyloid deposits, and memory deficits, was found to develop a significant microglial response using Griffonia(More)
Senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are hallmark pathologies accompanying the neurodegeneration involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), for which beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide is a major constituent of SPs. Our laboratories previously developed the hydrophobic, fluorescent molecular-imaging probe(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of(More)