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The inner ear of the mouse develops from a roughly spherical epithelial vesicle, the otocyst, which undergoes a series of complex shape changes to produce the functionally important parts of an adult inner ear; in particular, a coiled cochlea--which houses the auditory apparatus, a saccule and utricle containing sensors of gravity and linear acceleration,… (More)
The authors evaluated the extent to which interobserver agreement (IOA) scores, using the block-by-block method for events scored with continuous duration recording (CDR), were higher when the data from the same sessions were converted to discontinuous methods. Sessions with IOA scores of 89% or less with CDR were rescored using 10-s partial interval… (More)
The epithelium lining the inner ear contains a large number of differentiated cell types, arranged in precise patterns. Once the otocyst has closed, do the cells differentiate according to mechanisms intrinsic to the epithelium or are they dependent on external influences? In particular, are they governed by signals from the surrounding periotic mesenchyme?… (More)
How is the timing of nerve outgrowth controlled during development? This question has been examined by grafting early limb buds between chick embryos of different ages, before innervation, and assessing the morphological pattern of nerves at later stages. Grafted limbs continued to develop according to their own timetable and were invaded by nerves from the… (More)
To what extent do motor and sensory nerve fibres depend on one another for guidance during the development of peripheral nerve patterns? This question has been examined by looking at the paths taken by sensory nerve fibres growing into the embryonic chick wing in the absence of motor axons. The precursors of the motoneurones were destroyed by irradiating… (More)
Binary phase diffraction gratings are shown to couple light coherently from a laser array into a single on-axis beam. The diffraction grating, designed to split a single beam into a specific number of equal intensity diffraction orders, is placed inside the cavity formed by the laser array and a common output mirror. The grating superimposes the light beams… (More)
The possible role of calcium and a calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP) in the reorganisation of mature mammalian neuromuscular junctions was studied in the sternocostalis muscle in rats. After the well-documented loss of polyneuronal innervation has occurred, the remaining single mature nerve ending continues to change its terminal branching pattern… (More)
The aberration-compensation method of passing the conjugate beam from a hologram through the same optical system used in making the hologram is combined with broad source interferometer techniques to give, along with the aberration compensation, considerable noise reduction. As with conventional photography, the image is two dimensional.
An interferometer comprising three diffraction gratings and an imaging system is used with spatially and spectrally noncoherent light to produce high fidelity low noise recording of phase- and -amplitude objects.