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The inner ear of the mouse develops from a roughly spherical epithelial vesicle, the otocyst, which undergoes a series of complex shape changes to produce the functionally important parts of an adult inner ear; in particular, a coiled cochlea--which houses the auditory apparatus, a saccule and utricle containing sensors of gravity and linear acceleration,(More)
BACKGROUND Whether the addition of radiation therapy (RT) improves overall survival in men with locally advanced prostate cancer managed with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is unclear. Our aim was to compare outcomes in such patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. METHODS Patients with: locally advanced (T3 or T4) prostate cancer (n=1057); or(More)
The epithelium lining the inner ear contains a large number of differentiated cell types, arranged in precise patterns. Once the otocyst has closed, do the cells differentiate according to mechanisms intrinsic to the epithelium or are they dependent on external influences? In particular, are they governed by signals from the surrounding periotic mesenchyme?(More)
How is the timing of nerve outgrowth controlled during development? This question has been examined by grafting early limb buds between chick embryos of different ages, before innervation, and assessing the morphological pattern of nerves at later stages. Grafted limbs continued to develop according to their own timetable and were invaded by nerves from the(More)
The possible role of calcium and a calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP) in the reorganisation of mature mammalian neuromuscular junctions was studied in the sternocostalis muscle in rats. After the well-documented loss of polyneuronal innervation has occurred, the remaining single mature nerve ending continues to change its terminal branching pattern(More)
To what extent do motor and sensory nerve fibres depend on one another for guidance during the development of peripheral nerve patterns? This question has been examined by looking at the paths taken by sensory nerve fibres growing into the embryonic chick wing in the absence of motor axons. The precursors of the motoneurones were destroyed by irradiating(More)
Coherent laser beam addition offers the potential for extremely bright optical sources by combining the power from many individual lasers. Binary-optical elements-surface-relief structures etched into optical substrates by integrated-circuit techniques-have been successfully employed in three optical beam addition systems. The techniques can produce(More)
Top-ranked items were identified during 30-min free-operant preference assessments for 9 individuals. Data from each session were analyzed to identify the item (a) that was engaged with first in each session and (b) to which the most responding was allocated after 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 20 min, and 25 min had elapsed in each session. The results indicated(More)
The authors evaluated the effects of matched and unmatched stimuli on immediate and subsequent engagement in targeted vocal stereotypy (Experiment 1) and untargeted motor stereotypy (Experiment 2). Results of Experiment 1 showed that (a) matched stimulation decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for 8 of 11 participants and increased subsequent(More)
The authors evaluated the extent to which interobserver agreement (IOA) scores, using the block-by-block method for events scored with continuous duration recording (CDR), were higher when the data from the same sessions were converted to discontinuous methods. Sessions with IOA scores of 89% or less with CDR were rescored using 10-s partial interval(More)