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The dendrites of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system have been considered as electrically passive structures which funnel synaptic potentials to the soma and axon initial segment, the site of action potential initiation. More recent studies, however, have shown that the dendrites of many neurons are not passive, but contain active conductances.(More)
How effectively synaptic and regenerative potentials propagate within neurons depends critically on the membrane properties and intracellular resistivity of the dendritic tree. These properties therefore are important determinants of neuronal function. Here we use simultaneous whole-cell patch-pipette recordings from the soma and apical dendrite of(More)
The temporal and spatial profile of activity-evoked changes in membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentration in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was examined with simultaneous somatic and dendritic patch-pipette recording and calcium imaging experiments. Action potentials are initiated close to the soma of these neurons and(More)
A description is given of the implementation of infrared differential interference contrast (IR-DIC) video microscopy to an upright compound microscope. Using the improved resolution offered by IR-DIC a procedure is described for making patch-pipette recordings from visually identified neuronal somata and dendrites in brain slices. As an example of the(More)
The specific membrane capacitance (C(m)) of a neuron influences synaptic efficacy and determines the speed with which electrical signals propagate along dendrites and unmyelinated axons. The value of this important parameter remains controversial. In this study, C(m) was estimated for the somatic membrane of cortical pyramidal neurons, spinal cord neurons,(More)
1. Initiation and propagation of action potentials evoked by extracellular synaptic stimulation was studied using simultaneous dual and triple patch pipette recordings from different locations on neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons in brain slices from 4-week-old rats (P26-30) at physiological temperatures. 2. Simultaneous cell-attached and whole-cell(More)
Simultaneous somatic and dendritic recordings were made from the same neocortical layer V pyramidal neuron, and current injection via the dendritic recording pipette was used to simulate the voltage change that occurs during an EPSP. At the soma, these simulated EPSPs increased nonlinearly with the amplitude of the dendritic current injection and with(More)
Action potentials are binary signals that transmit information via their rate and temporal pattern. In this context, the axon is thought of as a transmission line, devoid of a role in neuronal computation. Here, we show a highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action potential waveform in the axon initial segment (AIS) of(More)
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized region in neurons where action potentials are initiated. It is commonly assumed that this process requires a high density of voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channels. Paradoxically, the results of patch-clamp studies suggest that the Na(+) channel density at the AIS is similar to that at the soma and proximal(More)
Previous studies focusing on the temporal rules governing changes in synaptic strength during spike timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) have paid little attention to the fact that synaptic inputs are distributed across complex dendritic trees. During STDP, propagation of action potentials (APs) back to the site of synaptic input is thought to(More)