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How effectively synaptic and regenerative potentials propagate within neurons depends critically on the membrane properties and intracellular resistivity of the dendritic tree. These properties therefore are important determinants of neuronal function. Here we use simultaneous whole-cell patch-pipette recordings from the soma and apical dendrite of(More)
The dendrites of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system have been considered as electrically passive structures which funnel synaptic potentials to the soma and axon initial segment, the site of action potential initiation. More recent studies, however, have shown that the dendrites of many neurons are not passive, but contain active conductances.(More)
1. Initiation and propagation of action potentials evoked by extracellular synaptic stimulation was studied using simultaneous dual and triple patch pipette recordings from different locations on neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons in brain slices from 4-week-old rats (P26-30) at physiological temperatures. 2. Simultaneous cell-attached and whole-cell(More)
The temporal and spatial profile of activity-evoked changes in membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentration in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was examined with simultaneous somatic and dendritic patch-pipette recording and calcium imaging experiments. Action potentials are initiated close to the soma of these neurons and(More)
A description is given of the implementation of infrared differential interference contrast (IR-DIC) video microscopy to an upright compound microscope. Using the improved resolution offered by IR-DIC a procedure is described for making patch-pipette recordings from visually identified neuronal somata and dendrites in brain slices. As an example of the(More)
The specific membrane capacitance (C(m)) of a neuron influences synaptic efficacy and determines the speed with which electrical signals propagate along dendrites and unmyelinated axons. The value of this important parameter remains controversial. In this study, C(m) was estimated for the somatic membrane of cortical pyramidal neurons, spinal cord neurons,(More)
Simultaneous somatic and dendritic recordings were made from the same neocortical layer V pyramidal neuron, and current injection via the dendritic recording pipette was used to simulate the voltage change that occurs during an EPSP. At the soma, these simulated EPSPs increased nonlinearly with the amplitude of the dendritic current injection and with(More)
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized region in neurons where action potentials are initiated. It is commonly assumed that this process requires a high density of voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channels. Paradoxically, the results of patch-clamp studies suggest that the Na(+) channel density at the AIS is similar to that at the soma and proximal(More)
Neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons possess long apical dendrites that receive a significant portion of the neurons excitatory synaptic input. Passive neuronal models indicate that the time course of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) generated in the apical dendrite will be prolonged as they propagate toward the soma. EPSP propagation may,(More)
Most neurons in the mammalian CNS encode and transmit information via action potentials. Knowledge of where these electrical events are initiated and how they propagate within neurons is therefore fundamental to an understanding of neuronal function. While work from the 1950s suggested that action potentials are initiated in the axon, many subsequent(More)