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Studies of policy diffusion often focus on the horizontal spread of enactments from one state to another, paying little or no attention to the effects of local laws on state-level adoptions. For example, scholars have not tested whether local policy adoptions make state action more likely (through a snowball effect) or less likely (through a pressure valve(More)
Solids dispersed in a drying drop will migrate to the edge of the drop and form a solid ring. This phenomenon produces ringlike stains and occurs for a wide range of surfaces, solvents, and solutes. Here we show that the migration is caused by an outward flow within the drop that is driven by the loss of solvent by evaporation and geometrical constraint(More)
Thin cylindrical tethers are common lipid bilayer membrane structures, arising in situations ranging from micromanipulation experiments on artificial vesicles to the dynamic structure of the Golgi apparatus. We study the shape and formation of a tether in terms of the classical soap-film problem, which is applied to the case of a membrane disk under tension(More)
When a helical bacterial flagellum, clamped at one end, is placed in an external flow, it has been observed that regions of the flagellum transform to the opposite chirality, and travel as pulses down the length of the filament, the process repeating periodically [H. Hotani, J. Mol. Biol. 156, 791 (1982)]]. We propose a theory for this phenomenon based on a(More)
It has long been known that during the closed mitosis of many unicellular eukaryotes, including the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), the nuclear envelope remains intact while the nucleus undergoes a remarkable sequence of shape transformations driven by elongation of an intranuclear mitotic spindle whose ends are capped by spindle pole bodies(More)
Despite extensive research on voting, there is little evidence connecting turnout to tangible outcomes. Would election results and public policy be different if everyone voted? The adoption of compulsory voting in Australia provides a rare opportunity to address this question. First, I collect two novel data sources to assess the extent of turnout(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) often forms stacked membrane sheets, an arrangement that is likely required to accommodate a maximum of membrane-bound polysomes for secretory protein synthesis. How sheets are stacked is unknown. Here, we used improved staining and automated ultrathin sectioning electron microscopy methods to analyze stacked ER sheets in(More)
Can the presence of molecular-tilt order significantly affect the shapes of lipid bilayer membranes, particularly membrane shapes with narrow necks? Motivated by the propensity for tilt order and the common occurrence of narrow necks in the intermediate stages of biological processes such as endocytosis and vesicle trafficking, we examine how tilt order(More)
Spirochetes are a unique group of motile bacteria that are distinguished by their helical or flat-wave shapes and the location of their flagella, which reside within the tiny space between the bacterial cell wall and the outer membrane (the periplasm). In Borrelia burgdorferi, rotation of the flagella produces cellular undulations that drive swimming. How(More)
Regulation of actin dynamics through the Nck/N-WASp (neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein)/Arp2/3 pathway is essential for organogenesis, cell invasiveness, and pathogen infection. Although many of the proteins involved in this pathway are known, the detailed mechanism by which it functions remains undetermined. To examine the signaling mechanism, we(More)