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BACKGROUND Extensive mammographic density is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and makes the detection of cancer by mammography difficult, but the influence of density on risk according to method of cancer detection is unknown. METHODS We carried out three nested case-control studies in screened populations with 1112 matched case-control(More)
BACKGROUND Greater weight and body mass index (BMI) are negatively correlated with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer, and are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but with a reduced risk in premenopausal women. We have examined the associations of body size and mammographic density on breast(More)
BACKGROUND Some types of hormone therapy increase both risk of breast cancer and mammographic density, a risk factor for the disease, suggesting that mammographic density may be a surrogate marker for the effects of hormones on risk of breast cancer. This research was undertaken to determine whether the effect of hormone therapy on breast cancer risk is(More)
BACKGROUND Fibroglandular breast tissue appears dense on mammogram, whereas fat appears nondense. It is unclear whether absolute or percentage dense area more strongly predicts breast cancer risk and whether absolute nondense area is independently associated with risk. METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies providing results from(More)
BACKGROUND There is a growing recognition of the involvement of human papilloma virus infection in the etiology of head and neck cancers at some sites, mainly the base of the tongue, tonsils, and other oropharynx (hereafter termed oropharyngeal cancer). Other oral sites (hereafter termed oral cavity cancer [OCC]) show a stronger association with tobacco and(More)
Percent mammographic density (PMD) is associated with an increased risk of interval breast cancer in screening programs, as are younger age, pre-menopausal status, lower body mass index and hormone therapy. These factors are also associated with variations in PMD. We have examined whether these variables influence the relative frequency of interval and(More)
BACKGROUND Percent mammographic density (PMD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer that changes in response to changes in hormone exposure. We have examined the magnitude of the association of hormone exposure with PMD according to subsequent breast cancer risk. METHODS In three case-control studies, with 1,164 patient cases and 1,155 controls nested(More)
BACKGROUND Geographical variation and temporal trends in the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancers vary according to both tumour morphology and organ subsite. Both diseases are among the deadliest forms of cancer. The incidence and survival rates for gastric and esophageal carcinoma in British Columbia (BC) between 1990 and 1999 are described. (More)
The morphologic subgroups of intraductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast may be biologically different. Thirty-eight patients with comedo-type DCIS treated with local resection with or without radiotherapy are presented. Thirteen of 35 patients had a family history of breast cancer, with 11 patients having an affected first-degree relative. This is(More)
Epidemiologic data and animal experiments suggest that dietary fat may influence risk of breast cancer. To determine whether intervention with a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet would reduce breast cancer incidence in women at increased risk of the disease, we carried out a randomized controlled trial in Canada. We recruited 4,690 women with extensive(More)