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To study the mechanisms of branchial acid-base regulation, Pacific spiny dogfish were infused intravenously for 24 h with either HCl (495+/- 79 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) or NaHCO(3) (981+/-235 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Infusion of HCl produced a transient reduction in blood pH. Despite continued infusion of acid, pH returned to normal by 12 h. Infusion of(More)
Ion and acid-base regulating mechanisms have been studied at the fish gill for almost a century. Original models proposed for Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake, and their linkage with H(+) and HCO(3)(-) secretion have changed substantially with the development of more sophisticated physiological techniques. At the freshwater fish gill, two dominant mechanisms for(More)
A magnetic cell separation technique (MACS) was developed for isolating and characterizing peanut lectin agglutinin positive (PNA(+)) cells from rainbow trout gills. Percoll density separated mitochondria-rich (MR) cells were serially labeled with PNA-FITC and an anti-FITC antibody covalently coupled to a 50-nm iron particle and then applied to a magnetic(More)
This review examines the branchial mechanisms utilized by freshwater fish to regulate internal acid-base status and presents a model to explain the underlying basis of the compensatory processes. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brown bullhead, Ictalurus nebulosus, were examined under a variety of experimental treatments which induced respiratory and(More)
This review examines the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of ion transport and acid-base regulation in the freshwater fish gill. The application of a combination of morphological, immunocytochemical and biochemical techniques has yielded considerable insight into the field. An important mechanism for regulation of Cl- uptake/base(More)
Urea excretion by the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) has been shown in previous studies to be a highly pulsatile facilitated transport, with excretion probably occurring at the gill. The present study reports the isolation of an 1800 base pair (kb) cDNA from toadfish gill with one open reading frame putatively encoding a 475-residue protein, the toadfish urea(More)
The unique or enhanced properties of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) suggest that their use in nanoenabled products will continue to increase. This will result in increased potential for human and environmental exposure to MNs during manufacturing, use, and disposal of nanoenabled products. Scientifically based risk assessment for MNs necessitates the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hyperosmotic mannitol therapy is widely used in the clinical setting for acute and subacute reduction in brain edema, to decrease muscle damage in compartment syndrome, and to improve renal perfusion. Though beneficial rheological effects commonly are attributed to mannitol, its direct effects on endothelial cells are poorly(More)
The Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami) is an unusual fish, excreting all its nitrogenous waste as urea because of its highly alkaline and buffered aquatic habitat. Here, using both physiological and molecular studies, we describe the mechanism of branchial urea excretion in this species. In vivo, repeated short-interval sampling revealed that urea(More)
Percoll density-gradient separation, combined with peanut lectin agglutinin (PNA) binding and magnetic bead separation, was used to separate dispersed fish gill cells into sub-populations. Functional characterization of each of the sub-populations was performed to determine which displayed acid-activated phenamil- and bafilomycin-sensitive Na(+) uptake.(More)