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Improved glucose control in type 2 diabetes is known to reduce the risk of microvascular events. There is, however, continuing uncertainty about its impact on macrovascular disease. The aim of these analyses was to generate more precise estimates of the effects of more-intensive, compared with less-intensive, glucose control on the risk of major(More)
Effects of variation in fire season on flowering of forbs and shrubs were studied experimentally in two longleaf pine forest habitats in northern Florida, USA. Large, replicated plots were burned at different times of the year, and flowering on each plot was measured over the twelve months following fire. While fire season had little effect on the number of(More)
CONTEXT The evidence that measurement of the common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) improves the risk scores in prediction of the absolute risk of cardiovascular events is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To determine whether common CIMT has added value in 10-year risk prediction of first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes, above that of the Framingham(More)
OBJECTIVE To test at the population level whether people with multiple metabolic syndrome (MMS) disorders have reduced cardiac autonomic activity (CAA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined the association between the level of CAA and MMS disorders, at the degree of clustering and the segregate combination levels, using a random sample of 2,359 men and(More)
The resting ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a non-invasive method to assess the patency of the lower extremity arterial system and to screen for the presence of peripheral occlusive arterial disease. To determine how the ABI is associated with clinical coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, preclinical carotid plaque and far wall intimal-medial thickness (IMT)(More)
BACKGROUND The problems of adherence to energy restriction in humans are well known. OBJECTIVE To compare the feasibility and effectiveness of intermittent continuous energy (IER) with continuous energy restriction (CER) for weight loss, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic disease risk markers. DESIGN Randomized comparison of a 25% energy(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the progression of autonomic impairment among individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetic metabolic impairments. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the consequence of diabetes and pre-diabetic metabolic impairments on the 9-year change in heart rate variability (HRV) in a population-based cohort of 6,245 individuals aged(More)
CONTEXT Atherosclerosis is often advanced before symptoms appear and it is not clear whether treatment is beneficial in middle-aged individuals with a low Framingham risk score (FRS) and mild to moderate subclinical atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE To assess whether statin therapy could slow progression and/or cause regression of carotid intima-media thickness(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis in a population of patients with pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS In a prospective multicenter study, a cohort of 221 patients underwent baseline measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as part of the Atherosclerosis Prevention in Pediatric Lupus(More)
Background and Purpose: B-mode ultrasound is a widely used technique for the clinical and epidemiological assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. This article provides a description of the distribution of carotid atherosclerosis in the general population. Methods: Intimal-medial arterial wall thickness was measured by B-mode real-time ultrasound as an index(More)