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The C57BL/6J (C57) and DBA/2J (DBA) mice are the most common genotypes used to identify chromosomal regions and neurochemical mechanisms of interest in opioid addiction. Unfortunately, outside of the oral two-bottle choice procedure, limited and sometimes controversial evidence is available for determining their relative sensitivity to the rewarding effects(More)
Major depressive disorder affects around 16 per cent of the world population at some point in their lives. Despite the availability of numerous monoaminergic-based antidepressants, most patients require several weeks, if not months, to respond to these treatments, and many patients never attain sustained remission of their symptoms. The non-competitive,(More)
The rewarding effects of opiates are thought to be mediated through dopaminergic mechanisms in the ventral tegmental area, dopamine-independent mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens, or both. The purpose of the present study was to explore the contribution of dopamine to opiate-reinforced behavior using D2 receptor knock-out mice. Wild-type, heterozygous, and(More)
In behavior genetics, behavioral patterns of mouse genotypes, such as inbred strains, crosses, and knockouts, are characterized and compared to associate them with particular gene loci. Such genotype differences, however, are usually established in single-laboratory experiments, and questions have been raised regarding the replicability of the results in(More)
Levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous product of tryptophan degradation, are elevated in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). This increase has been implicated in the cognitive dysfunctions seen in the disease, as KYNA is an antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the N-methyl-d-aspartate(More)
In this report we link candidate genes to complex behavioral phenotypes by using a behavior genetics approach. Gene expression signatures were generated for the prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, temporal lobe, periaqueductal gray, and cerebellum in eight inbred strains from priority group A of the Mouse Phenome Project. Bioinformatic analysis of(More)
At endogenous brain concentrations, the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) antagonizes the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor. The functions of these two receptors, which are intimately involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes, may, therefore, be enhanced by(More)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived metabolite, antagonizes the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. As both receptors are involved in cognitive processes, KYNA elevations may aggravate, whereas reductions may improve, cognitive functions. We(More)
Cognitive dysfunctions, including deficits in hippocampus-mediated learning and memory, are core features of the psychopathology of schizophrenia (SZ). Increased levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived tryptophan metabolite and antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, have been implicated in these cognitive(More)
Chronic morphine administration may alter the expression of hundreds to thousands of genes. However, only a subset of these genes is likely involved in analgesic tolerance. In this report, we used a behavior genetics strategy to identify candidate genes specifically linked to the development of morphine tolerance. Two inbred genotypes [C57BL/6J (B6), DBA2/J(More)