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The co-evolutionary 'arms race' is a widely accepted model for the evolution of host-pathogen interactions. This model predicts that variation for disease resistance will be transient, and that host populations generally will be monomorphic at disease-resistance (R-gene) loci. However, plant populations show considerable polymorphism at R-gene loci involved(More)
The economic damage caused by episodic outbreaks of forest-defoliating insects has spurred much research, yet why such outbreaks occur remains unclear. Theoretical biologists argue that outbreaks are driven by specialist pathogens or parasitoids, because host-pathogen and host-parasitoid models show large-amplitude, long-period cycles resembling time series(More)
Although coevolution is complicated, in that the interacting species evolve in response to each other, such evolutionary dynamics are amenable to mathematical modeling. In this article, we briefly review models and data on coevolution between plants and the pathogens and herbivores that attack them. We focus on "arms races," in which trait values in the(More)
Hundreds of species are shifting their ranges in response to recent climate warming. To predict how continued climate warming will affect the potential, or “bioclimatic range,” of a skipper butterfly, we present a population‐dynamic model of range shift in which population growth is a function of temperature. We estimate the parameters of this model using(More)
Concerns over bioterrorism and emerging diseases have led to the widespread use of epidemic models for evaluating public health strategies. Partly because epidemic models often capture the dynamics of prior epidemics remarkably well, little attention has been paid to how uncertainty in parameter estimates might affect model predictions. To understand such(More)
The theory of insect population dynamics has shown that heterogeneity in natural-enemy attack rates is strongly stabilizing. We tested the usefulness of this theory for outbreaking insects, many of which are attacked by infectious pathogens. We measured heterogeneity among gypsy moth larvae in their risk of infection with a nucleopolyhedrovirus, which is(More)
Many mobile organisms exhibit resource-dependent movement in which movement rates adjust to changes in local resource densities through changes in either the probability of moving or the distance moved. Such changes may have important consequences for invasions because reductions in resources behind an invasion front may cause higher dispersal while(More)
1. Studies of variability in host resistance to disease generally emphasize variability in susceptibility given exposure, neglecting the possibility that hosts may vary in behaviours that affect the risk of exposure. 2. In many insects, horizontal transmission of baculoviruses occurs when larvae consume foliage contaminated by the cadavers of virus-infected(More)
The evolutionary dynamics of pathogens are critically important for disease outcomes, prevalence and emergence. In this study we investigate ecological conditions that may promote the long-term maintenance of virulence polymorphisms in pathogen populations. Recent theory predicts that evolution towards increased virulence can be reversed if less-aggressive(More)
Classical epidemic theory focuses on directly transmitted pathogens, but many pathogens are instead transmitted when hosts encounter infectious particles. Theory has shown that for such diseases pathogen persistence time in the environment can strongly affect disease dynamics, but estimates of persistence time, and consequently tests of the theory, are(More)