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The co-evolutionary 'arms race' is a widely accepted model for the evolution of host-pathogen interactions. This model predicts that variation for disease resistance will be transient, and that host populations generally will be monomorphic at disease-resistance (R-gene) loci. However, plant populations show considerable polymorphism at R-gene loci involved(More)
The economic damage caused by episodic outbreaks of forest-defoliating insects has spurred much research, yet why such outbreaks occur remains unclear. Theoretical biologists argue that outbreaks are driven by specialist pathogens or parasitoids, because host-pathogen and host-parasitoid models show large-amplitude, long-period cycles resembling time series(More)
The dynamic pattern of fetal breathing was studied in 17 fetal lambs with chronically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the diaphragm. The instantaneous breathing rate time series appeared similar on different time scales, with clusters of faster breathing rates interspersed with periods of relative quiescience, suggesting self-similarity.(More)
Many mobile organisms exhibit resource-dependent movement in which movement rates adjust to changes in local resource densities through changes in either the probability of moving or the distance moved. Such changes may have important consequences for invasions because reductions in resources behind an invasion front may cause higher dispersal while(More)
In many forest insects, subpopulations fluctuate concurrently across large geographical areas, a phenomenon known as population synchrony. Because of the large spatial scales involved, empirical tests to identify the causes of synchrony are often impractical. Simple models are, therefore, a useful aid to understanding, but data often seem to contradict(More)
The mechanism of action of low doses of morphine on breathing dynamics in the fetus was studied in 16 fetal lambs with chronically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the diaphragm. Morphine (0.15-2.5 mg/h) caused a significant dose-dependent increase in the number of diaphragmatic bursts per hour, with either an increase or no change in instantaneous(More)
Morphine has been reported to both stimulate and suppress fetal breathing movements (FBM). In light of these conflicting reports, we have conducted a systematic dose-response analysis of the effects of morphine on FBM in 27 fetal lambs. Morphine was infused directly to the fetus in doses ranging from 0.075 to 80 mg/hr. Low doses (0.075-2.5 mg/hr) resulted(More)
Estimates of a disease's basic reproductive rate R0 play a central role in understanding outbreaks and planning intervention strategies. In many calculations of R0, a simplifying assumption is that different host populations have effectively identical transmission rates. This assumption can lead to an underestimate of the overall uncertainty associated with(More)
Stochastic models are of increasing importance in ecology but are usually only applied to observational data. Here we use a stochastic population model to combine experimental and observational data to understand the colonization of old fields by monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus. We experimentally tested for density dependence in oviposition rates when(More)
With the use of a relatively inexpensive microcomputer-based system for power spectral analysis, we have been able to provide quantitative information on maturational changes in electrocorticogram waveforms in the third-trimester fetal lamb. Twenty-six electrocorticogram recordings were obtained from nine fetal lambs, with gestational ages ranging from 114(More)