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Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for(More)
This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. Lex Borghans is a(More)
We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And,(More)
from entrepreneurs and simply consider the productive services as being, in a certain sense, exchanged directly for one another...” (1954/1873:225). The fiction that services directly exchange for one another without human intervention is a handy simplification for the analysis of equilibria of an economy with complete contracting. However if, contraWalras,(More)
Families, primarily female-headed minority households with children, living in highpoverty public housing projects in five U.S. cities were offered housing vouchers by lottery in the Moving to Opportunity program. Four to seven years after random assignment, families offered vouchers lived in safer neighborhoods that had lower poverty rates than those of(More)
Although hundreds of studies have documented the association between family poverty and children's health, achievement, and behavior, few measure the effects of the timing, depth, and duration of poverty on children, and many fail to adjust for other family characteristics (for example, female headship, mother's age, and schooling) that may account for much(More)
Working memory (WM), the ability to store and manipulate information for short periods of time, is an important predictor of scholastic aptitude and a critical bottleneck underlying higher-order cognitive processes, including controlled attention and reasoning. Recent interventions targeting WM have suggested plasticity of the WM system by demonstrating(More)
A t the beginning of kindergarten, the math and reading achievement gaps between children in the bottom and top income quintiles amount to more than a full standard deviation. Early childhood education programs provide child care services and may facilitate the labor market careers of parents, but their greatest potential value is as a human capital(More)
OBJECTIVES In this study we examined the relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality for a representative sample of individuals. METHODS The sample included 3734 individuals aged 45 and older interviewed in 1984 in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. In the current study, mortality was tracked between 1984 and 1994 and is(More)
This paper presents an economic model of how teenagers’ outlooks–specifically their locus of control–affects human capital investments. Locus of control, or internal-external attitudes, is a psychological measure of a person’s belief regarding the causal relationship between their own behavior and outcomes. The effect of eighth graders’ locus of control on(More)