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To determine whether human X-linked neonatal diabetes mellitus, enteropathy and endocrinopathy syndrome (IPEX; MIM 304930) is the genetic equivalent of the scurfy (sf) mouse, we sequenced the human ortholog (FOXP3) of the gene mutated in scurfy mice (Foxp3), in IPEX patients. We found four non-polymorphic mutations. Each mutation affects the(More)
An abnormality of jaw development in the German shorthaired pointer which results in severe overshot is described. Its frequency of occurrence in a kennel where only phenotypically normal breeding stock were used was six/100 pups alive at three weeks. The abnormality was inherited in a manner consistent with the influence of a single autosomal recessive(More)
Four related male infants presented with neonatal diabetes mellitus, immune dysregulation with extremely high concentrations of immunoglobulin E, and intractable diarrhoea. They were all from one family, and all of them died. As far as is known this X-linked recessive disorder has not been described before. It is suggested that this is a new(More)
Coeliac disease is a multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the intestine caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genes within the HLA-DQ locus are considered to contribute some 40% of the genetic influence on this disease. However, information on other disease causing genes is sparse. Since enterocytes are considered to play(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is an autoantigen in coeliac disease and the related disorder, dermatitis herpetiformis. The detection of autoantibodies directed against tTG is a highly specific marker of coeliac disease; however, it is unclear if there is a role for these autoantibodies in the disease process. The aim of this study was to(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous substances known and are thus classified as high-risk threats for use as bioterror agents. To examine the potential of transgenic plants as bioreactors for the production of BoNT antidotes, we transformed tobacco with an optimized, synthetic gene encoding a botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) neutralizing(More)
The detection of antibodies directed against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in serum is a sensitive and specific test for suspected coeliac disease. tTG is a ubiquitous, multifunctional enzyme that has been implicated in many important physiological processes as well as the site-specific deamidation of glutamine residues in gluten-derived peptides. This(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate MHC-unrestricted cells that regulate inflammatory responses through the rapid production of cytokines. In this article, we show that circulating MAIT cells are depleted in obese adults, and depletion is associated with diabetic status. Circulating MAIT cells more frequently produced IL-17 upon(More)
Unstable nonchaotic solutions embedded in the chaotic attractor can provide significant new insight into chaotic dynamics of both low- and high-dimensional systems. In particular, in turbulent fluid flows, such unstable solutions are referred to as exact coherent structures (ECS) and play an important role in both initiating and sustaining turbulence. The(More)
Previous studies have shown evidence for T lymphocytes specific for tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in the periphery of coeliac disease (CD) patients. These cells could play a role in disease pathogenesis and may be involved in providing help for the production of anti-tTG autoantibodies. The objective of this study was to further investigate the presence of(More)