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Coeliac disease is a multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the intestine caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genes within the HLA-DQ locus are considered to contribute some 40% of the genetic influence on this disease. However, information on other disease causing genes is sparse. Since enterocytes are considered to play(More)
The detection of antibodies directed against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in serum is a sensitive and specific test for suspected coeliac disease. tTG is a ubiquitous, multifunctional enzyme that has been implicated in many important physiological processes as well as the site-specific deamidation of glutamine residues in gluten-derived peptides. This(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate MHC-unrestricted cells that regulate inflammatory responses through the rapid production of cytokines. In this article, we show that circulating MAIT cells are depleted in obese adults, and depletion is associated with diabetic status. Circulating MAIT cells more frequently produced IL-17 upon(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous substances known and are thus classified as high-risk threats for use as bioterror agents. To examine the potential of transgenic plants as bioreactors for the production of BoNT antidotes, we transformed tobacco with an optimized, synthetic gene encoding a botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) neutralizing(More)
We use an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system to study embedded vortex structures that are observed to form in computational fluid dynamic simulations of patient-specific cerebral aneurysm geometries. These structures, described by a vortex which is enclosed within a larger vortex flowing in the opposite direction, are created and destroyed in(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is an autoantigen in coeliac disease and the related disorder, dermatitis herpetiformis. The detection of autoantibodies directed against tTG is a highly specific marker of coeliac disease; however, it is unclear if there is a role for these autoantibodies in the disease process. The aim of this study was to(More)
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is routinely used as a coating on a range of press-fit (cementless) orthopaedic implants to enhance their osseointegration. The standard plasma spraying method used to deposit a HA surface layer on such implants often contains unwanted crystal phases that can lead to coating delamination in vivo. Consequently, there has been a continuous(More)
Previous studies have shown evidence for T lymphocytes specific for tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in the periphery of coeliac disease (CD) patients. These cells could play a role in disease pathogenesis and may be involved in providing help for the production of anti-tTG autoantibodies. The objective of this study was to further investigate the presence of(More)
Hemodynamics is thought to be a fundamental factor in the formation, progression, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve their rupture risk assessment and treatment. In this study, we analyze the blood flow field in a growing cerebral aneurysm using experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) and(More)
Strange attractors can exhibit bifurcations just as periodic orbits in these attractors can exhibit bifurcations. We describe two classes of large-scale bifurcations that strange attractors can undergo. For each we provide a mechanism. These bifurcations are illustrated in a simple class of three-dimensional dynamical systems that contains the Lorenz system.