We establish conditions for distinguishing between two topologically identical strange attractors that are enclosed by identical bounding tori, one of which is generated by a flow restricted to that torus, the other of which is generated by a flow in a different bounding torus and either imaged or lifted into the first bounding torus.
BACKGROUND Coeliac disease is a multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the intestine caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genes within the HLA-DQ locus are considered to contribute some 40% of the genetic influence on this disease. However, information on other disease causing genes is sparse. Since enterocytes are… (More)
We use an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system to study embedded vortex structures that are observed to form in computational fluid dynamic simulations of patient-specific cerebral aneurysm geometries. These structures, described by a vortex which is enclosed within a larger vortex flowing in the opposite direction, are created and destroyed in… (More)