Greg A Early

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Surveillance for influenza A virus infection of seals has continued following the association of influenza A virus with epizootics of pneumonia in seals off the New England coast in 1979-1980 and 1982-1983. In January 1991 and January to February 1992, influenza A viruses were isolated from seals that died of pneumonia along the Cape Cod peninsula of(More)
The long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, is a social, pelagic odontocete distributed widely in the cold temperate waters of the North Atlantic. Despite genetic, morphometric, physiological and observational studies, it remains unclear whether any population substructure exists. We have used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to analyse(More)
More than 400 harbor seals, most of them immature, died along the New England coast between December 1979 and October 1980 of acute pneumonia associated with influenza virus, A/Seal/Mass/1/180 (H7N7). The virus has avian characteristics, replicates principally in mammals, and causes mild respiratory disease in experimentally infected seals. Concurrent(More)
Using a virus neutralization technique, we found phocine distemper virus (PDV) antibody in 130 (83% of 157) harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from the western North Atlantic sampled between 1988 and 1993 inclusive. In contrast, only 44 (24% of 185) hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) had antibodies against PDV even though they were sympatric with harp seals(More)
Gas bubbles were found in 15 of 23 gillnet-drowned bycaught harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor (Phoca vitulina) and gray (Halichoerus grypus) seals, common (Delphinus delphis) and white-sided (Lagenorhyncus acutus) dolphins, and harbor porpoises (Phocaena phocaena) but in only 1 of 41 stranded marine mammals. Cases with minimal scavenging and bloating(More)
Influenza A virus isolates of the H4N5 subtype (which has previously been detected only in birds) were recovered from harbor seals dying of viral pneumonia on the New England coast from June 1982 through March 1983. When these isolates were compared with other mammalian and avian viruses in serological assays and RNA-RNA competitive hybridization, it was(More)
A longitudinal study of morbillivirus infection among harbor (Phoca vitulina) and gray (Halichoerus grypus) seals on the Atlantic coast of North America was carried out between 1980 and 1994. Serology also was carried out on harbor seals from the Pacific northwest coast collected in 1992 and 1993. The prevalence of morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies was(More)
We report serologic evidence of morbillivirus infection in eleven of fifteen species of odontocete cetaceans from the western Atlantic since 1986. Blood samples were obtained both from free-ranging and stranded animals. Virus neutralizing titers were higher against porpoise and dolphin morbilliviruses than against peste des petits ruminants virus, phocine(More)
The success demonstrated by the spiral Salmonella assay in a recent study of 20 pure prompted us to examine the effectiveness of this automated bacterial mutagenicity assay for testing complex environmental mixtures. Three sets of combustion emissions were selected for evaluation: automotive diesel exhaust, woodsmoke, and a coal combustion emission. Each(More)