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Pulmonary congestion is highly prevalent and often asymptomatic among patients with ESRD treated with hemodialysis, but whether its presence predicts clinical outcomes is unknown. Here, we tested the prognostic value of extravascular lung water measured by a simple, well validated ultrasound B-lines score (BL-US) in a multicenter study that enrolled 392(More)
Long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability predicts a high risk for cardiovascular events in patients with essential hypertension. Whether long-term visit-to-visit BP variability holds the same predictive power in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Here we tested the relationship between long-term visit-to-visit(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Since heart rate (HR) is a cardiovascular risk factor and a marker of sympathetic activity, we tested the predictive value of HR for progression to kidney failure in a well characterized cohort of 759 patients with stage 2-5 CKD followed up for 29 ± 11 months. RESULTS Overall, a total of 244 patients had renal events. In an(More)
The Kaplan-Meier and the Cox regression methods are the most used statistical techniques for performing "time to event analysis" in epidemiological and clinical research. The Kaplan-Meier analysis allows to build up one or more survival curves describing the occurrence of the outcome of interest over time according to the presence/absence of one or more(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES High serum IL-6 is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. This cytokine is substantially increased in patients with CKD, but it is still unknown whether the link between IL-6 and CVD in CKD is causal in nature. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS In a cohort of 755 patients with(More)
BACKGROUND In the USA, the increase in the prevalence of obesity in the general population has been accompanied by a marked increase in the prevalence and incidence of obesity in the dialysis population. However, secular trends of body mass index (BMI) have not been investigated in European renal registries. METHODS We investigated the secular trend of(More)
BACKGROUND High FGF23 and low α-Klotho levels associate with systemic inflammation and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, but the dynamics of this relationship in patients with CKD has not been investigated. METHODS We sequentially measured serum intact FGF23 and carboxyl-terminal (iFGF23, cFGF23), the iFGF23/cFGF23 ratio, αKlotho, biomarkers of(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Pro-inflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated in the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease in obesity. We investigated the expression profile of 19 pro-inflammatory and seven anti-inflammatory genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in 44 severely obese individuals who(More)
BACKGROUND Resistin is a major adipose tissue cytokine implicated in insulin resistance, inflammation and vascular damage. This cytokine is raised in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) but the relationship between resistin and major clinical outcomes has not been investigated in this population. METHODS We studied the mutual relationship(More)
BACKGROUND Although the number of patients reaching end-stage kidney disease without a biopsy-proven diagnosis is increasing, the utility of renal biopsy is still an object of debate. We analyzed epidemiological data and the main indications for renal biopsy with a systematic, evidence-based review at current literature. SUMMARY There is a high(More)