Graziana Colaianni

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We report that oxytocin (OT), a primitive neurohypophyseal hormone, hitherto thought solely to modulate lactation and social bonding, is a direct regulator of bone mass. Deletion of OT or the OT receptor (Oxtr) in male or female mice causes osteoporosis resulting from reduced bone formation. Consistent with low bone formation, OT stimulates the(More)
BACKGROUND Increased plasma homocysteine (HCY) may be an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and therefore may also adversely affect bone metabolism. We analyzed the effect of HCY on human osteoclast (OC) activity. METHODS We cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 17 healthy male donors [median (SD) age, 30 (5) years] for 20 days(More)
M-CSF is known to induce cytoskeletal reorganization in macrophages and osteoclasts by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and c-Src, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We find, unexpectedly, that tyrosine (Tyr) to phenylalanine (Phe) mutation of Tyr-721, the PI3K binding site in the M-CSF receptor c-Fms, fails to suppress(More)
It is unclear how physical activity stimulates new bone synthesis. We explored whether irisin, a newly discovered myokine released upon physical activity, displays anabolic actions on the skeleton. Young male mice were injected with vehicle or recombinant irisin (r-irisin) at a low cumulative weekly dose of 100 µg kg(-1). We observed significant increases(More)
Children with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) need chronic glucocorticoid (cGC) therapy to replace congenital deficit of cortisol synthesis, and this therapy is the most frequent and severe form of drug-induced osteoporosis. In this study, we enrolled 18 patients (9 females) and 18 sex- and age-matched controls. We found in 21-OHD patients high serum and(More)
Osteoclasts are macrophage derived cells and as such are subject to regulation by molecules impacting other members of the immune system. Dap12 is an adaptor protein expressed by NK cells and B and T lymphocytes. Dap12 also mediates maturation of myeloid cells and is expressed by osteoclasts which are dysfunctional in its absence. We find Dap12-/-(More)
BACKGROUND Homocysteine (HCY) has recently been linked to fragility fractures. Moreover, HCY activates osteoclasts (OC). Elevated HCY concentrations are mainly caused by folate, vitamin B12 (B12) and B6 (B6) deficiencies. We hypothesized that folate, B12 and B6 deficiencies stimulate OC activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS OC were cultured from peripheral(More)
It has been recently demonstrated that exercise activity increases the expression of the myokine Irisin in skeletal muscle, which is able to drive the transition of white to brown adipocytes, likely following a phenomenon of transdifferentiation. This new evidence supports the idea that muscle can be considered an endocrine organ, given its ability to(More)
During space flight, severe losses of bone mass are observed. Both bone formation and resorption are probably involved, but their relative importance remains unclear. The purpose of this research is to understand the role of osteoclasts and their precursors in microgravity-induced bone loss. Three experiments on isolated osteoclasts (OCs) and on their(More)
Although hyponatremia is known to be associated with osteoporosis and a high fracture risk, the mechanism through which bone loss ensues has remained unclear. As hyponatremic patients have elevated circulating arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels, we examined whether AVP can affect the skeleton directly as yet another component of the pituitary-bone axis.(More)