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The precise role played by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in HIV infection remains controversial. Despite strong CTL responses being generated during the asymptomatic phase, the virus persists and AIDS ultimately develops. It has been argued that the virus is so variable, and the virus turnover so great that escape from CTL recognition would(More)
Within-patient HIV evolution reflects the strong selection pressure driving viral escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) recognition. Whether this intrapatient accumulation of escape mutations translates into HIV evolution at the population level has not been evaluated. We studied over 300 patients drawn from the B- and C-clade epidemics, focusing on(More)
We have attempted to determine the cellular mechanism by which alpha-thalassaemia may protect against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Invasion and development of P. falciparum in the microcytic red cells of two-gene deletion forms of alpha-thalassaemia when measured morphologically or by [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation were normal compared to controls. Normal(More)
In an attempt to determine the mechanism whereby thalassemia in its milder forms may protect against malaria, we have examined the expression of neoantigen at the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized thalassemic red cells. Neoantigen expression was estimated by measurement of antibody bound after incubation in serum from adults living in a(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a range of cytokines were detectable in the seminal plasma and urine of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and nonspecific urethritis (NSU), and whether cytokine levels correlated with symptom severity in CP/CPPS. PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 87 men participated, 33 with CP/CPPS, 31 with(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 amino acid sequence polymorphisms associated with expression of specific human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles suggest sites of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated selection pressure and immune escape. The associations most frequently observed are between expression of an HLA class I molecule(More)
The potential contribution of HLA-A alleles to viremic control in chronic HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection has been relatively understudied compared with HLA-B. In these studies, we show that HLA-A*7401 is associated with favorable viremic control in extended southern African cohorts of >2100 C-clade-infected subjects. We present evidence that HLA-A*7401(More)
Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is controlled principally by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to a steady-state level of virus load, which strongly influences the ultimate rate of progression to disease. Epitope selection by CTL may be an important determinant of the degree of immune control over the virus. This report(More)
HLA diversity is seen as a major challenge to CTL vaccines against HIV. One current approach focuses on "promiscuous" epitopes, presented by multiple HLA alleles from within the same HLA supertype. However, the effectiveness of such supertype vaccines depends upon the functional equivalence of CTL targeting a particular epitope, irrespective of the(More)
The association between HLA-B 2705 and the immune control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has previously been linked to the targeting of the HLA-B 2705-restricted Gag epitope KRWIILGLNK (KK10) by CD8(+) T cells. In order to better define the mechanisms of the HLA-B 2705 immune control of HIV, we first characterized the CD8(+) T-cell responses(More)