Gray A. Williams

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Rats (Rattus norvegicus) have two classes of cone, one containing an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive photopigment and the other housing a pigment maximally sensitive in the middle (M) wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The manner in which signals from these two cone types contribute to rat vision was investigated through recordings of a gross electrical(More)
Contemporary theory for thermal adaptation of ectothermic metazoans focuses on the maximization of energy gain and performance (locomotion and foraging). Little consideration is given to the selection for mechanisms that minimize resting energy loss in organisms whose energy gain is severely constrained. We tested a hypothetical framework for thermal(More)
Hong Kong rocky shores are dominated by cyanobacterial biofilms composed of a diversity of species. Thirteen common species, belonging to seven genera, were isolated in pure culture in MN+ and MN− media under defined growth conditions from a semi-exposed shore in Hong Kong. The nutritional values (i.e., protein, carbohydrate and calorific value) of these 13(More)
Allergens from crustaceans and mollusks exhibit extensive cross-reactivity in vitro. However, the degree and pattern of cross-reactivity between different shellfish species in vivo is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of shellfish allergic patients in Hong Kong and the pattern of skin test reactivities(More)
AIM Genetic data were used to measure the phylogeographic distribution of the limpet, Cellana toreuma along the China coast in order to acsertain impacts of historic events, ocean currents and especially freshwater discharge from the Yangtze River on the connectivity of intertidal species with limited larval dispersal capability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
There is considerable interest in understanding how ectothermic animals may physiologically and behaviourally buffer the effects of climate warming. Much less consideration is being given to how organisms might adapt to non-climatic heat sources in ways that could confound predictions for responses of species and communities to climate warming. Although(More)
Littorinid snails are predominantly herbivorous and the versatility of their radulae enables them to feed on a variety of macroscopic and microscopic plants in a diversity of habitats. Some are selective feeders preferring some species of algae to others, and rejecting some even after a prolonged period of starvation. Different species of snail exhibit(More)
Biological responses to climate change are typically communicated in generalized terms such as poleward and altitudinal range shifts, but adaptation efforts relevant to management decisions often require forecasts that incorporate the interaction of multiple climatic and nonclimatic stressors at far smaller spatiotemporal scales. We argue that the desire(More)
Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for(More)
Hong Kong is within the tropics and has a seasonal climate. In winter, shores support patches of ephemeral macroalgae and areas of seemingly bare rock close to crevices where molluscan herbivores are abundant. Using a factorial design of herbivore exclusions in areas far and close to crevices, the development of algal assemblages was monitored in mid-shore,(More)