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Rats (Rattus norvegicus) have two classes of cone, one containing an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive photopigment and the other housing a pigment maximally sensitive in the middle (M) wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The manner in which signals from these two cone types contribute to rat vision was investigated through recordings of a gross electrical(More)
Contemporary theory for thermal adaptation of ectothermic metazoans focuses on the maximization of energy gain and performance (locomotion and foraging). Little consideration is given to the selection for mechanisms that minimize resting energy loss in organisms whose energy gain is severely constrained. We tested a hypothetical framework for thermal(More)
There is considerable interest in understanding how ectothermic animals may physiologically and behaviourally buffer the effects of climate warming. Much less consideration is being given to how organisms might adapt to non-climatic heat sources in ways that could confound predictions for responses of species and communities to climate warming. Although(More)
Variation in the abundance and distribution of two species of mangrove littorinid was investigated using a nested sampling design at different spatial scales, in the two dominant seasons, in Hong Kong. The abundance of Littoraria melanostoma, which was less abundant than L. ardouiniana, showed large-scale spatial variation whilst abundance of L. ardouiniana(More)
Littorinid snails are predominantly herbivorous and the versatility of their radulae enables them to feed on a variety of macroscopic and microscopic plants in a diversity of habitats. Some are selective feeders preferring some species of algae to others, and rejecting some even after a prolonged period of starvation. Different species of snail exhibit(More)
Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for(More)
We compared the heat tolerance, proteomic responses to heat stress, and adaptive sequence divergence in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata and its noninvasive congener Pomacea diffusa. The LT50 of P. canaliculata was significantly higher than that of P. diffusa. More than 3350 proteins were identified from the hepatopancreas of the snails exposed to(More)
Many ecological communities exist in a stable state where, if undisturbed, no net change will occur in the populations or in the interactions between the component parts of the system. In this paper we present computational methods (evolutionary algorithms and random searches) to parameterize mathematical models that describe communities in stable states.(More)
Hong Kong rocky shores are dominated by cyanobacterial biofilms composed of a diversity of species. Thirteen common species, belonging to seven genera, were isolated in pure culture in MN+ and MN− media under defined growth conditions from a semi-exposed shore in Hong Kong. The nutritional values (i.e., protein, carbohydrate and calorific value) of these 13(More)
AIM Genetic data were used to measure the phylogeographic distribution of the limpet, Cellana toreuma along the China coast in order to acsertain impacts of historic events, ocean currents and especially freshwater discharge from the Yangtze River on the connectivity of intertidal species with limited larval dispersal capability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)