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The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a complex network of two soluble ligands; several cell surface transmembrane receptors and six soluble high-affinity binding-proteins. The IGF system is essential for normal embryonic and postnatal growth, and plays an important role in the function of a healthy immune system, lymphopoiesis, myogenesis and bone(More)
Src homology 3 (SH3) domains have been implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions in receptor signaling processes; however, the precise role of this domain remains unclear. In this report, affinity purification techniques were used to identify the GTPase dynamin as an SH3 domain-binding protein. Selective binding to a subset of 15 different(More)
SH3 domains are found in proteins associated with receptor tyrosine kinase signal transduction complexes. The solution structure of the SH3 domain of the 85 kd regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is shown to be a compact beta barrel consisting of five beta strands arranged in two beta sheets of three and two strands. The structure is similar(More)
Tec is the prototypic member of a family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that includes Txk, Bmx, Itk, and Btk. Tec family kinases share similarities in domain structure with Src family kinases, but one of the features that differentiates them is a proline-rich region (PRR) preceding their Src homology (SH) 3 domain. Evidence that the PRR of Itk can bind(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) promotes cell proliferation and survival and plays an important role in normal fetal development and placental function. IGF-II binds both the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) with high affinity. Interestingly both IGF-II and the IR-A are often upregulated in(More)
Very little is known about the residues important for the interaction of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) with the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) and the insulin receptor (IR). Insulin, to which IGF-II is homologous, is proposed to cross-link opposite halves of the IR dimer through two receptor binding surfaces, site 1 and site 2. In the present study(More)
The transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor alpha-subunit (HIFalpha) is pivotal in the cellular response to the stress of hypoxia. Post-translational modification of HIFalpha by hydroxylase enzymes has recently been identified as a key "oxygen sensing" mechanism within the cell. The absence of the substrate oxygen prevents the hydroxylases from(More)
Host-defence peptides secreted from the skin glands of Australian frogs and toads, are, with a few notable exceptions, different from those produced by anurans elsewhere. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the following classes of peptide isolated and characterized from Australian anurans: neuropeptides (including smooth muscle active peptides,(More)
Pyruvate carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.1) is a biotin-containing enzyme that plays an important role in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Here we report the structural organization of the rat pyruvate carboxylase gene, which spans over 40 kilobases and is composed of 19 coding exons and 4 5'-untranslated region exons. From this data, it is clear that alternative(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunits 1 and 2 (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha) are subjected to oxygen-dependent asparaginyl hydroxylation, a modification that represses the carboxyl-terminal transactivation domain (CAD) at normoxia by preventing recruitment of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein coactivators. This hydroxylation is performed by(More)