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A diagnostic procedure based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa shasta. Three sets of oligonucleotide primers were designed to specifically amplify C. shasta ribosomal RNA genes and several parameters of the assay were tested and optimised. A simple protocol for the processing of fish tissue samples(More)
Analyzing the integration profile of retroviral vectors is a vital step in determining their potential genotoxic effects and developing safer vectors for therapeutic use. Identifying retroviral vector integration sites is also important for retroviral mutagenesis screens. We developed VISA, a vector integration site analysis server, to analyze(More)
Foamy viruses (FVs) or spumaviruses are retroviruses that have been developed as vectors, but their integration patterns have not been described. We have performed a large-scale analysis of FV integration sites in unselected human fibroblasts (n = 1,008) and human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells (n = 1,821) by using a bacterial shuttle vector and a comparable(More)
Two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Mx cDNAs were cloned by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) PCR and were designated RBTMx2 and RBTMx3. The deduced RBTMx2 and RBTMx3 proteins were 636 and 623 amino acids in length with molecular masses of 72 and 70.8 kDa, respectively. These proteins, along with the previously described RBTMx1 protein (G.(More)
Mx proteins are members of a family of interferon-inducible genes expressed when cells are treated with double-stranded RNA or virus infection. These proteins are important components of the antiviral response and form the first line of the body's defense against virus infections. The exact mechanism of action for these proteins has not been discovered, but(More)
Retroviral vector-mediated HSC gene therapy has been used to treat individuals with a number of life-threatening diseases. However, some patients with SCID-X1 developed retroviral vector-mediated leukemia after treatment. The selective growth advantage of gene-modified cells in patients with SCID-X1 suggests that the transgene may have played a role in(More)
The integration sites of viral vectors used in human gene therapy can have important consequences for safety and efficacy. However, an extensive evaluation of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector integration sites has not been completed, despite the ongoing use of AAV vectors in clinical trials. Here we have used a shuttle vector system to isolate and(More)
Large animal models have been instrumental in advancing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. Here we review the advantages of large animal models, their contributions to the field of HSC gene therapy and recent progress in this field. Several properties of human HSCs including their purification, their cell-cycle characteristics, their response to(More)
INTRODUCTION Retroviral vectors have been developed for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy and have successfully cured X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID), adrenoleukodystrophy, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. However, in HSC gene therapy clinical trials, genotoxicity mediated by integrated(More)
Gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is an ideal treatment strategy for many genetic and hematologic diseases. However, progress has been limited by the low HSC transduction rates obtained with retroviral vectors based on murine leukemia viruses. This study examined the potential of vectors derived from the nonpathogenic human foamy virus(More)