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Spray-drying (SD) and freeze-drying (FD) are widely used methods for microencapsulation of heat-sensitive materials like probiotics for long-term preservation and transport. Spray-freeze-drying (SFD) is relatively a new technique that involves spraying a solution into a cold medium and removal of solvent (water) by conventional vacuum FD method. In this(More)
The effect of hexane and chloroform extracts from the fruit rinds of Garcinia cowa and Garcinia pedunculata on the growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus was studied using peanut powder as a model food system. The growth of A. flavus was completely inhibited by the hexane and chloroform extracts from G. cowa and chloroform extract from G.(More)
Fine-scale spatial heterogeneity influences biodiversity and ecosystem productivity at many scales. In savanna systems, Macrotermes termites, through forming spatially explicit mounds with unique woody plant assemblages, emerge as important sources of such heterogeneity. Despite a growing consensus regarding the importance of functional diversity (FD) to(More)
At finer scales, spatial heterogeneity can influence fire intensity and severity. To test whether Macrotermes termite mounds act as fire refugia for woody plants, we assessed effects of fire on individual plants, woody plant structure and composition in a miombo woodland in Zimbabwe, where elephants have decreased tree cover, leading to increased grass(More)
Biodiversity affects ecosystem function through species’ functional traits. Although it is possible to predict species richness (SR) patterns along environmental gradients, whether functional diversity (FD) changes in predictable ways is not known. In arid environments, SR typically increases with rainfall. Aridity may limit functional differentiation by(More)
The bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa, which are abundant in the Northeastern regions of India, were screened for their antioxidant and in vitro antiplatelet aggregating activities. By β-carotene linoleate model for antioxidant assay, acetone extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extracts of G. cowa exhibited higher antioxidant activity(More)
Tinospora cordifolia is known for its various medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this study, the antioxidant profile of the stem extract of T. cordifolia has been determined using various in vitro methods. An attempt was also made to identify phenolic compounds in T. cordifolia stem extract using silica gel column chromatography, high performance(More)
Spatially heterogeneous habitats often promote woody plant species and functional diversity (FD). Ungulate herbivory can have the opposite effect. Across the globe, the type and intensity of herbivory is changing, as domestic livestock replace wild ungulates, which are increasingly confined to protected areas. Despite recognition of the importance of FD for(More)