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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disorder that arises from the action of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. We report the findings of a genome-wide association study of T1D, combined in a meta-analysis with two previously published studies. The total sample set included 7,514 cases and 9,045 reference samples. Forty-one distinct(More)
1 T he discovery of the association between HLA in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 with type 1 diabetes, but not with type 2 diabetes, suggested that these disease entities were of different genetic background and pathogenesis. The discovery that some individuals with diabetes had autoantibodies in their blood provided(More)
B LYMPHOCYTES are key participants in the immune response because of their specificity, their ability to take up and present antigens to T cells, and their capacity to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. To limit reactivity to self antigens, autospecific B cells can be functionally inactivated or deleted. Developing B cells that react with membrane(More)
CMT4D disease is a severe autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy with extensive axonal loss leading to early disability, caused by mutations in the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1). NDRG1 is expressed at particularly high levels in the Schwann cell (SC), but its physiological function(s) are unknown. To help with their understanding, we(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are not normally expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, aberrant expression has been observed in multiple sclerosis lesions and could contribute to the destruction of myelin or the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. The mechanism of cell damage associated with aberrant MHC molecule(More)
OBJECTIVE The Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) has assembled and genotyped a large collection of multiplex families for the purpose of mapping genomic regions linked to type 1 diabetes. In the current study, we tested for evidence of loci associated with type 1 diabetes utilizing genome-wide linkage scan data and family-based association methods.(More)
BACKGROUND Severe asthma is a frequent cause of hospital admission, especially among children. The main environmental triggers of airway inflammation in asthma are viruses and aeroallergens. These agents elicit reciprocal immune responses, characterised by production of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cytokines, respectively. There is no genetic explanation for(More)
The PI 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling pathway is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Here we have characterized PI 3-K effectors activated during myelination by probing myelinating cultures and developing nerves with an antibody that recognizes phosphorylated substrates for this pathway. We identified a discrete number of phospho-proteins including the S6(More)
OBJECTIVE The rising incidence of type 1 diabetes has been attributed to environment, implying a lesser role for genetic susceptibility. However, the rise could be accounted for by either more cases with classic high-risk genes or by cases with other risk genes. Separately, for any degree of genetic susceptibility, age at presentation may decrease in a(More)
Although convincing evidence has been obtained for the imposition of self-tolerance by the intrathymic deletion of self-reactive T cells, the development of tolerance to antigens which are expressed only in the periphery is not so well understood. We have approached this question by creating transgenic mice which carry a class I major histocompatibility(More)