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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disorder that arises from the action of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. We report the findings of a genome-wide association study of T1D, combined in a meta-analysis with two previously published studies. The total sample set included 7,514 cases and 9,045 reference samples. Forty-one distinct(More)
Owing to the importance of interleukin (IL)-12 in regulating immune responses, we have determined the complete genomic sequence and organization of the gene encoding its p40 subunit. The genomic sequence was determined and was compared to cDNA sequences to derive exon/intron boundaries. Unusually, both the first and last of the eight exons of this gene are(More)
This white paper by eighty members of the Complex Trait Consortium presents a community's view on the approaches and statistical analyses that are needed for the identification of genetic loci that determine quantitative traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can be identified in several ways, but is there a definitive test of whether a candidate locus(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D; or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) is an autoimmune disease with both genetic and environmental components. In addition to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, the single major genetic contributor of susceptibility, an unknown number of other unidentified genes are required to mediate disease. Although many loci(More)
The goal of the Complex Trait Consortium is to promote the development of resources that can be used to understand, treat and ultimately prevent pervasive human diseases. Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are less effective for studying intact polygenic networks and(More)
1 T he discovery of the association between HLA in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 with type 1 diabetes, but not with type 2 diabetes, suggested that these disease entities were of different genetic background and pathogenesis. The discovery that some individuals with diabetes had autoantibodies in their blood provided(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a multigenic autoimmune disease. An IDDM susceptibility gene was mapped to chromosome 2q34. This gene may act early in diabetogenesis, because "preclinical" individuals also showed linkage. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-disparate, but not HLA-identical, sibs showed linkage, which was even stronger in families(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a multigenic autoimmune disease, for which one of the best animal models is the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain. In both humans and NOD mice, major histocompatibility complex genes are implicated as risk factors in the disease process. Other susceptibility genes are also involved, and a number have been mapped in(More)
B LYMPHOCYTES are key participants in the immune response because of their specificity, their ability to take up and present antigens to T cells, and their capacity to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. To limit reactivity to self antigens, autospecific B cells can be functionally inactivated or deleted. Developing B cells that react with membrane(More)
Evaluating risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on determining an individual's HLA type, especially of the HLA DRB1 and DQB1 alleles. Individuals positive for HLA-DRB1*03 (DR3) or HLA-DRB1*04 (DR4) with DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) have the highest risk of developing T1D. Currently, HLA typing methods are relatively expensive and time consuming. We sought(More)