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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disorder that arises from the action of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. We report the findings of a genome-wide association study of T1D, combined in a meta-analysis with two previously published studies. The total sample set included 7,514 cases and 9,045 reference samples. Forty-one distinct(More)
The goal of the Complex Trait Consortium is to promote the development of resources that can be used to understand, treat and ultimately prevent pervasive human diseases. Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are less effective for studying intact polygenic networks and(More)
1 T he discovery of the association between HLA in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 with type 1 diabetes, but not with type 2 diabetes, suggested that these disease entities were of different genetic background and pathogenesis. The discovery that some individuals with diabetes had autoantibodies in their blood provided(More)
B LYMPHOCYTES are key participants in the immune response because of their specificity, their ability to take up and present antigens to T cells, and their capacity to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells. To limit reactivity to self antigens, autospecific B cells can be functionally inactivated or deleted. Developing B cells that react with membrane(More)
Owing to the importance of interleukin (IL)-12 in regulating immune responses, we have determined the complete genomic sequence and organization of the gene encoding its p40 subunit. The genomic sequence was determined and was compared to cDNA sequences to derive exon/intron boundaries. Unusually, both the first and last of the eight exons of this gene are(More)
Evaluating risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on determining an individual's HLA type, especially of the HLA DRB1 and DQB1 alleles. Individuals positive for HLA-DRB1*03 (DR3) or HLA-DRB1*04 (DR4) with DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) have the highest risk of developing T1D. Currently, HLA typing methods are relatively expensive and time consuming. We sought(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D; or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) is an autoimmune disease with both genetic and environmental components. In addition to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, the single major genetic contributor of susceptibility, an unknown number of other unidentified genes are required to mediate disease. Although many loci(More)
BACKGROUND Severe asthma is a frequent cause of hospital admission, especially among children. The main environmental triggers of airway inflammation in asthma are viruses and aeroallergens. These agents elicit reciprocal immune responses, characterised by production of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cytokines, respectively. There is no genetic explanation for(More)
Type 1 diabetes is a common, multifactorial disease with strong familial clustering (genetic risk ratio [lambda(S)] approximately 15). Approximately 40% of the familial aggregation of type 1 diabetes can be attributed to allelic variation of HLA loci in the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6p21 (locus-specific lambda(S) approximately 3). Three(More)
The Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) is an international, multicenter program organized to promote research to identify genes and their alleles that determine an individual's risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). The primary goal of the T1DGC is to establish resources and data that can be used by, and that is fully accessible to, the research community(More)