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Mortality rates in the United States fell more rapidly during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries than in any other period in American history. This decline coincided with an epidemiological transition and the disappearance of a mortality "penalty" associated with living in urban areas. There is little empirical evidence and much unresolved(More)
Women's choices appear to emphasize child welfare more than those of men. This paper presents new evidence on how suffrage rights for American women helped children to benefit from the scientific breakthroughs of the bacteriological revolution. Consistent with standard models of electoral competition, suffrage laws were followed by immediate shifts in(More)
Although the past few decades have seen rising incomes and increased government attention to rural development, many children in rural China still lack regular access to micronutrient-rich diets. Insufficient diets and poor knowledge of nutrition among the poor result in nutritional problems, including iron-deficiency anaemia, which adversely affect(More)
We present a method that is suitable for clustering of vehicle trajectories obtained by an automated vision system. We combine ideas from two spectral clustering methods and propose a trajectory-similarity measure based on the Hausdorff distance, with modifications to improve its robustness and account for the fact that trajectories are ordered collections(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of countywide Medicaid managed care on service use at community clinics. METHODS Clinic use before and after introduction of Medicaid plans in one county was compared with that in a group of comparable counties without such plans. RESULTS There were significant declines of 40% to 45% in(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the relation between the HIV/AIDS epidemic and support for dependent elderly people in Africa. DESIGN Retrospective analysis using data from Demographic and Health Surveys. SETTING 22 African countries between 1991 and 2006. PARTICIPANTS 123,176 individuals over the age of 60. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We investigated how three(More)
We explore the first period of decline in infant mortality in the U.S. and provide estimates of the independentand combined effects of clean water and effective sewerage systems on infant mortality. Our caseis Massachusetts, 1880-1915, when state authorities developed a sewerage and water district for municipalitiesin the Boston Greater Metropolitan area.(More)
Drivers receive value from traveler information in several ways, including the ability to save time, but perhaps more importantly, from certainty, which has other personal, social, safety, or psychological impacts. This project aims to quantify travelers' willingness to pay for pre-trip travel-time information on alternative routes. Different from previous(More)
CONTEXT The effect of global health initiatives on population health is uncertain. Between 2003 and 2008, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the largest initiative ever devoted to a single disease, operated intensively in 12 African focus countries. The initiative's effect on all-cause adult mortality is unknown. OBJECTIVE To(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether China's New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), which aims to provide health insurance to 800 million rural citizens and to correct distortions in rural primary care, and the individual policy attributes have affected the operation and use of village health clinics. DESIGN We performed a difference-in-difference(More)