Grant L. Campbell

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BACKGROUND West Nile fever (WNF) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection endemic in Africa and Asia. In 1996, the first major WNF epidemic in Europe occurred in Romania, with a high rate of neurological infections. We investigated the epidemic to characterise transmission patterns in this novel setting and to determine its origin. METHODS Hospital-based(More)
From 1937 until 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) garnered scant medical attention as the cause of febrile illness and sporadic encephalitis in parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe. After the surprising detection of WNV in New York City in 1999, the virus has spread dramatically westward across the United States, southward into Central America and the Caribbean, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To update the estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using recent data for the purpose of guiding prevention and control efforts. METHODS Thirty-two areas endemic for JE in 24 Asian and Western Pacific countries were sorted into 10 incidence groups on the basis of published data and expert opinion. Population-based surveillance(More)
BACKGROUND In the summer of 1999, West Nile virus was recognised in the western hemisphere for the first time when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and meningitis in the metropolitan area of New York City, NY, USA. Intensive hospital-based surveillance identified 59 cases, including seven deaths in the region. We did a household-based(More)
CONTEXT The neurologic manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcome of patients with West Nile virus (WNV) infection have not been prospectively characterized. OBJECTIVE To describe prospectively the clinical and laboratory features and long-term outcome of patients with neurologic manifestations of WNV infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
PROBLEM/CONDITION Lyme disease is caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States. Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted to humans by infected Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus ticks. Lyme disease is typically evidenced in its early stage by a characteristic rash(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) causes epidemics of febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, and flaccid paralysis. Since it was first detected in New York City in 1999, and through 2004, >16,000 WNV disease cases have been reported in the United States. Over the past 5 years, research on WNV disease has expanded rapidly. This review highlights new information(More)
Powassan virus (POWV) disease is a rare human disease caused by a tick-borne encephalitis group flavivirus maintained in a transmission cycle between Ixodes cookei and other ixodid ticks and small and medium-sized mammals. During 1958-1998, only 27 POWV disease cases (mostly Powassan encephalitis) were reported from eastern Canada and the northeastern(More)
West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and human, equine, and avian neuropathogen. The virus is indigenous to Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia, and has recently caused large epidemics in Romania, Russia, and Israel. Birds are the natural reservoir (amplifying) hosts, and WN virus is maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird-mosquito(More)
Since 1999, health officials have documented the spread of West Nile virus across the eastern and southern states and into the central United States. In 2002, a large, multi-state, epidemic of neuroinvasive West Nile illness occurred. Using standardized guidelines, health departments conducted surveillance for West Nile virus illness in humans, and West(More)