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Use of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) is a promising new technique in the field of targeted genome engineering, editing and reverse genetics. Its applications span from introducing knockout mutations to endogenous tagging of proteins and targeted excision repair. Owing to this wide range of possible applications, there is a need(More)
Aberrant regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has an important role during the onset and progression of colorectal cancer, with over 90% of cases of sporadic colon cancer featuring mutations in APC or β-catenin. However, it has remained a point of controversy whether these mutations are sufficient to activate the pathway or require additional upstream(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) represents a powerful method to systematically study loss-of-function phenotypes on a large scale with a wide variety of biological assays, constituting a rich source for the assignment of gene function. The GenomeRNAi database (http://www.genomernai.org) makes available RNAi phenotype data extracted from the literature for human and(More)
Many clustering techniques have been proposed for the analysis of gene expression data obtained from microarray experiments. However, choice of suitable method(s) for a given experimental dataset is not straightforward. Common approaches do not translate well and fail to take account of the data profile. This review paper surveys state of the art(More)
encodes an RNA (crRNA), consisting of a guide RNA (gRNA) and transactivating CRISPR RNA parts. A processed crRNA fragment is incorporated into the Cas9 protein, guiding it to the target DNA, where the Cas9 nuclease introduces a double-strand break9,10. The CRISPR-Cas system has been successfully used in human induced pluripotent stem cells, mice, zebrafish(More)
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is an emerging technology becoming relevant for genotyping of clinical samples. Here, we assessed the stability of amplicon sequencing from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and paired frozen samples from colorectal cancer metastases with different analysis pipelines. 212 amplicon regions in 48 cancer related genes(More)
With the fast development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, a new generation of genome-wide gene expression measurements is under way. This is based on mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq), which complements the already mature technology of microarrays, and is expected to overcome some of the latter's disadvantages. These RNA-seq data pose new challenges,(More)
Malignant astrocytomas are highly aggressive brain tumours with poor prognosis. While a number of structural genomic changes and dysregulation of signalling pathways in gliomas have been described, the identification of biomarkers and druggable targets remains an important task for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we show that the(More)
Cells of the epidermis renew constantly from germinal layer stem cells. Although epithelial cell differentiation has been studied in great detail and the role of Wnt signaling in this process is well described, the contribution of epidermal Wnt secretion in epithelial cell homeostasis remains poorly understood. To analyze the role of Wnt proteins in this(More)
Maintaining tissue homeostasis is a critical process during infection and inflammation. Tissues with a high intrinsic turnover, such as the intestinal epithelium, must launch a rapid response to infections while simultaneously coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation decisions. In this study, we searched for genes required for regeneration of the(More)