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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood characterized by inattention, excessive motor activity, impulsivity, and distractibility. It is associated with serious disability in children, adolescents and adults. The etiology of the disorder is unknown, but it has a strong genetic component. Pharmacological and(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition of childhood the symptoms of which include inattention, excessive motor activity, inpulsivity and distractibility. It is strongly familial and twin and adoption studies suggest that the familiality is due, at least in part, to shared genes. Gillis et al found concordance rates in ADHD for(More)
Converging evidence has implicated abnormalities of dopamine neurotransmission to the pathology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several genetic association studies have been published, but so far, no DNA variants have been unequivocally demonstrated as contributing to ADHD susceptibility. Four dopamine related gene loci have been(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood-onset syndromes affecting 3%-6% of school-age children worldwide. Although the biological basis of ADHD is unknown, a dopaminergic abnormality has long been suggested. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been mapped to chromosome 11p15.5 and has been implicated in(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate association of DRD4 polymorphisms with ADHD subtypes for which there is evidence for increased heritability. The genetic variants tested were the 120 bp insertion/deletion, the -616, -521, -376, and the 48 bp DRD4 VNTR. The primary analyses were of association with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct(More)
Several studies have implicated the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) as conferring susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in particular, a VNTR situated at the 3' end of the gene. In addition, the 10-repeat VNTR allele associated with ADHD has been reported to be associated with an over-active transporter protein (DAT). Thus(More)
Pharmacological and biochemical studies have indicated that imbalances in dopaminergic transmission may contribute to the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a key role in the degradation of catecholamines such as dopamine, L-DOPA, adrenaline, and noradrenaline and therefore(More)
This study was a prospective single blind randomised controlled trial to compare the effects of rehabilitation with emphasis on retraining the vastus medialis (VMO) component of the quadriceps femoris muscle and rehabilitation with emphasis on general strengthening of the quadriceps femoris muscles on pain, function and Quality of Life in patients with(More)
A 56-year-old female was referred to the respiratory clinic by her general practitioner with a 3-month history of dyspnoea and cough. She was a non-smoker. Her cough persisted despite several trials of medication, including antibiotics and inhaled bronchodilator and steroid therapy. Her past medical history included cervical cancer in 1997 with vault(More)