Graham Simmons

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by an emergent coronavirus (SARS-CoV), for which there is currently no effective treatment. SARS-CoV mediates receptor binding and entry by its spike (S) glycoprotein, and infection is sensitive to lysosomotropic agents that perturb endosomal pH. We demonstrate here that the lysosomotropic-agent-mediated(More)
CCR5, a chemokine receptor expressed on T cells and macrophages, is the principal coreceptor for M-tropic HIV-1 strains. Recently, we described an NH2-terminal modification of the CCR5 ligand regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), aminooxypentane-RANTES (AOP-RANTES), that showed potent inhibition of macrophage infection by(More)
The lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR can augment viral infection; however, the range of pathogens interacting with these attachment factors is incompletely defined. Here we show that DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR enhance infection mediated by the glycoprotein (GP) of Marburg virus (MARV) and the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and might(More)
XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence(More)
The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 have recently been shown to act as coreceptors, in concert with CD4, for human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection. RANTES and other chemokines that interact with CCR5 and block infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures inhibit infection of primary macrophages inefficiently at best. If used to(More)
The Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein (GP) derived from the pathogenic Zaire subtype mediates cell rounding and detachment from the extracellular matrix in 293T cells. In this study we provide evidence that GPs from the other pathogenic subtypes, Sudan and Côte d'Ivoire, as well as from Reston, a strain thought to be nonpathogenic in humans, also induced(More)
Complete envelope genes were amplified from autopsy brain tissue of five individuals who had died of AIDS and had neurological complications. Lymph node samples were included for two of the patients. Nineteen different envelope clones from the five patients had distinct V1V2 sequences. Thirteen of the envelopes were functional and conferred fusigenicity and(More)
Cell surface receptors exploited by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) for infection are major determinants of tropism. HIV-1 usually requires two receptors to infect cells. Gp120 on HIV-1 virions binds CD4 on the cell surface, triggering conformational rearrangements that create or expose a binding site for a(More)
The C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR [collectively referred to as DC-SIGN(R)] bind and transmit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus to T cells via the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Other viruses containing heavily glycosylated glycoproteins (GPs) fail to interact with DC-SIGN(R), suggesting some degree of specificity(More)
Members of the gammaretroviruses--such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), most notably XMRV [xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV)-related virus--have been reported to be present in the blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We evaluated blood samples from 61 patients with CFS from a single clinical practice, 43 of whom had previously(More)