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What Is This Thing Called Mental Toughness? An Investigation of Elite Sport Performers
The literature on mental toughness is characterized by a general lack of conceptual clarity and consensus as to its definition, as well as a general failure to operationalize the construct in aExpand
The development and maintenance of mental toughness: Perceptions of elite performers
It was reported that once mental toughness had been developed, three perceived underlying mechanisms were required to maintain this construct: a desire and motivation to succeed that was insatiable and internalized, a support network that included sporting and non-sporting personnel, and effective use of basic and advanced psychological skills. Expand
Intensity and Direction as Dimensions of Competitive State Anxiety and Relationships with Competitiveness
This study examined differences in intensity and direction of symptoms of competitive state anxiety in high and low competitive subjects from the sports of rugby union, basketball, soccer, and field hockey to support the proposal that sports performers' directional perceptions of their anxiety symptoms may provide further understanding of the competitive state-anxiety response. Expand
The Development and Maintenance of Mental Toughness in the World’s Best Performers
Eleven superelite participants (7 performers, 2 coaches and 2 sport psychologists) were interviewed regarding the development and maintenance of mental toughness. Findings revealed that this processExpand
Performance Excellence: A Personal Perspective on the Link Between Sport and Business
This article provides a personal perspective on the link between excellence in sport and business. It traces the author's transition from sport psychologist to business consultant before identifyingExpand
The Acquisition and Development of Cognitive Skills and Strategies: I. Making the Butterflies Fly in Formation
This study presents the first in a series of two articles extending previous findings that elite performers, compared to nonelite performers, interpret their preperformance cognitive and somaticExpand
The relationship between transformational leadership behaviors, psychological, and training outcomes in elite military recruits☆
Abstract Two studies examined the effects of a differentiated model of transformational leadership on follower outcomes. In Study 1, 484 UK Royal Marine recruits completed questionnaires about theirExpand
The Effects of a Multimodal Intervention Program on Performers: II. Training the Butterflies to Fly in Formation
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a multimodal intervention on swimmers debilitated by anxiety. A staggered single-subject multiple-baseline across-subjects design was used overExpand
Intensity and interpretation of anxiety symptoms in elite and non-elite sports performers
Abstract Previous research which has examined debilitative and facilitative dimensions of anxiety has tended to adopt a unidimensional anxiety framework and to investigate relationships with academicExpand