Graham M. West

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Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin,(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein(More)
Functional regulation of ligand-activated receptors is driven by alterations in the conformational dynamics of the protein upon ligand binding. Differential hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) coupled with mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and sensitive approach for characterization of perturbations in conformational dynamics of proteins following(More)
Knowledge about the protein targets of therapeutic agents is critical for understanding drug mode of action. Described here is a mass spectrometry-based proteomics method for identifying the protein target(s) of drug molecules that is potentially applicable to any drug compound. The method, which involves making thermodynamic measurements of protein-folding(More)
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is an established method for the interrogation of protein conformation and dynamics. While the data analysis challenge of HDX-MS has been addressed by a number of software packages, new computational tools are needed to keep pace with the improved methods and throughput of this technique. To address(More)
Mechanism of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation and their modulation by functionally distinct ligands remains elusive. Using the technique of amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry, we examined the ligand-induced changes in conformational states and stability within the beta-2-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR). Differential(More)
Described here is a new technique, termed SPROX (stability of proteins from rates of oxidation), that can be used to measure the thermodynamic stability of proteins and protein-ligand complexes. SPROX utilizes hydrogen peroxide in the presence of increasing concentrations of a chemical denaturant to oxidize proteins. The extent of oxidation at a given(More)
The detection and quantification of protein-ligand binding interactions is crucial in a number of different areas of biochemical research from fundamental studies of biological processes to drug discovery efforts. Described here is a protocol that can be used to identify the protein targets of biologically relevant ligands (e.g., drugs such as tamoxifen or(More)
Plants regulate growth and respond to environmental stress through abscisic acid (ABA) regulated pathways, and as such these pathways are of primary interest for biological and agricultural research. The ABA response is first perceived by the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of START protein receptors. These ABA activated receptors disrupt phosphatase inhibition of(More)