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This paper describes a high-definition freehand 3-D ultrasound (US) system, with accuracy surpassing that of previously documented systems. 3-D point location accuracy within a US data set can be achieved to within 0.5 mm. Such accuracy is possible through a series of novel system-design and calibration techniques. The accuracy is quantified using a(More)
It is necessary to identify speckled regions in ultrasound images to control adaptive speckle suppression algorithms, for tissue characterisation, and to estimate the elevational separation of B-scans by speckle decorrelation. Previous authors have proposed classification techniques based on second order powers of the homodyned k-distribution, or lower(More)
A freehand scanning protocol is the only way to acquire arbitrary large volumes of three-dimensional ultrasound (US) data. For some applications, multiple freehand sweeps are required to cover the area of interest. Aligning these multiple sweeps is difficult, typically requiring nonrigid image-based registration as well as the readings from the spatial(More)
We present an algorithm which combines non-rigid image-based registration and conventional position sensing to correct probe-pressure-induced registration errors in freehand three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes. The local accuracy of image-based registration enables the accurate freehand acquisition of high resolution (>15 MHz) 3D ultrasound data,(More)
The ability to estimate a surface from a set of cross sections allows calculation of the enclosed volume and the display of the surface in three-dimensions. This process has increasingly been used to derive useful information from medical data. However, extracting the cross sections (segmenting) can be very difficult, and automatic segmentation methods are(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with osteoporosis are predisposed to hip fracture during trips, stumbles or falls, but half of all hip fractures occur in those without generalised osteoporosis. By analysing ordinary clinical CT scans using a novel cortical thickness mapping technique, we discovered patches of markedly thinner bone at fracture-prone regions in the(More)
The clinical utility of pulse-echo ultrasound images is severely limited by inherent poor resolution that impacts negatively on their diagnostic potential. Research into the enhancement of image quality has mostly been concentrated in the areas of blind image restoration and speckle removal, with little regard for accurate modeling of the underlying tissue(More)
We solve the equation that governs acoustic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous medium to show that the radio-frequency (RF) ultrasound signal can be expressed as the result of filtering the scatterer field with a point-spread function. We extend the analysis to make the link between the RF ultrasound signal and the representation of ultrasound scatterers(More)
Displacement estimation is a key step in the evaluation of tissue elasticity by quasistatic strain imaging. An efficient approach may incorporate a tracking strategy whereby each estimate is initially obtained from its neighbours' displacements and then refined through a localized search. This increases the accuracy and reduces the computational expense(More)
We present a new, intelligent interface for freehand strain imaging, which has been designed to support clinical trials investigating the potential of ultrasonic strain imaging for diagnostic purposes across a broad range of target pathologies. The aim with this interface is to make scanning easier and to help clinicians learn the necessary scanning(More)