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In this paper we provide a description of TimeML, a rich specification language for event and temporal expressions in natural language text, developed in the context of the AQUAINT program on Question Answering Systems. Unlike most previous work on event annotation, TimeML captures three distinct phenomena in temporal markup: (1) it systematically anchors(More)
The TempEval task proposes a simple way to evaluate automatic extraction of temporal relations. It avoids the pitfalls of evaluating a graph of interrelated labels by defining three sub tasks that allow pairwise evaluation of temporal relations. The task not only allows straightforward evaluation, it also avoids the complexities of full temporal parsing.
Making use of latent semantic analysis , we explore the hypothesis that local linguistic context can serve to identify multi-word expressions that have non-compositional meanings. We propose that vector-similarity between distribution vectors associated with an MWE as a whole and those associated with its constitutent parts can serve as a good measure of(More)
We describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of EMBERS, an automated, 24x7 continuous system for forecasting civil unrest across 10 countries of Latin America using open source indicators such as tweets, news sources, blogs, economic indicators, and other data sources. Unlike retrospective studies, EMBERS has been making forecasts into the future(More)
Civil unrest (protests, strikes, and " occupy " events) is a common occurrence in both democracies and authoritarian regimes. The study of civil unrest is a key topic for political scientists as it helps capture an important mechanism by which citizenry express themselves. In countries where civil unrest is lawful, qualitative analysis has revealed that(More)
We present a linguistically-informed schema for annotating modal expressions and describe its application to a subset of the MPQA corpus of English texts (Wiebe et al. 2005). The annotation is fine-grained in two respects: (i) in the range of expressions that are defined as modal targets and (ii) in the amount of information that is annotated for each(More)