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Methods of semen collection and artificial insemination (AI) in poultry, requirement for diluents, methods of liquid and frozen storage of avian semen and evaluation of spermatozoa after storage for fertilizing ability are reviewed. Frozen storage of semen from non-domestic birds is also briefly discussed.
The numbers of spermatozoa trapped in the vitelline membrane of laid eggs were counted after staining with the fluorochrome 2,4-diamidino-2-phenylindole. In a group of 24 hens inseminated with different numbers of spermatozoa to produce different lengths of fertile periods, the numbers of spermatozoa in successive eggs from each hen decreased(More)
Spermatozoa embedded in the outer perivitelline layer and points of hydrolysis (holes) produced by spermatozoa in the inner perivitelline layer of chicken and turkey eggs were found to be evenly distributed and linearly correlated (r = 0.80 for both species) throughout the layers from most regions of the egg, except from those directly over the germinal(More)
Following their insemination into the vagina of chicken hens, turkey spermatozoa did not appear to reach the ovum within the upper magnum or infundibulum and were only occasionally found within the sperm storage tubules at the uterovaginal junction. Turkey spermatozoa were able to populate chicken uterovaginal sperm storage tubules as (or more) efficiently(More)
The ability of samples of semen from individual male fowl to form the products of lipid peroxidation during 5 h aerobic incubation at 40 degrees C varied between 0 and 8 nmol malonaldehyde/10(9) spermatozoa. Formation of higher concentrations of malonaldehyde was associated with a partial or complete loss of fertilizing ability whilst the fertilizing(More)
The motility and acrosomal integrity of fowl spermatozoa in TES/NaCl buffer, with or without homogenized inner perivitelline layers (IPVL) prepared from laid fowl eggs, was almost negligible at 40 degrees C. However, motility became vigorous even at 40 degrees C when 2 mmol CaCl2/l was added, and the acrosome reaction was also stimulated in the presence,(More)
Staining of ejaculated chicken spermatozoa with lectin from FITC-conjugated Limulus polyphemus indicated a uniform distribution of terminal sialic acid residues on surface-associated glycoproteins throughout all regions of the spermatozoa. Treatment of spermatozoa with neuraminidase resulted in complete disappearance of this lectin affinity without any(More)
The motility of fowl spermatozoa at various temperatures was shown to be a function of their intracellular calcium content, measured after hypotonic lysis of the cells. Retention of calcium by spermatozoa, with consequent enhancement of motility, increased as the temperature was lowered from 40 degrees to 30 degrees C. Raising the temperature within this(More)
1. The ability of domestic fowl spermatozoa to reduce MTT tetrazolium to its coloured formazan was compared with other tests of sperm quality and fertilising ability. 2. MTT reduction was highly correlated with sperm ATP content (r2 = 0.85); sperm mobility (r2 = 0.62.); sperm:perivitelline layer interaction (r2 = 0.80) and fertilizing ability (r2 = 0.83).(More)
1. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity towards 12 substrates has been assessed in rat liver during the perinatal period. 2. Between days 16 and 20 of gestation, enzyme activities towards the substrates 2-aminophenol, 2-aminobenzoate, 4-nitrophenol, 1-naphthol, 4-methylumbelliferone and 5-hydroxytryptamine (the 'late foetal' group) surge to reach adult(More)