Graham J Burton

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PURPOSE The efficacy and tolerability of anastrozole (Arimidex; AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, and Macclesfield, United Kingdom) and tamoxifen were compared as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in 353 postmenopausal women. PATIENTS AND METHODS The randomized, double-blind, multicenter study was designed to evaluate anastrozole 1 mg once daily(More)
The aim was to measure changes in the oxygen tension within the human placenta associated with onset of the maternal arterial circulation at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, and the impact on placental tissues. Using a multiparameter probe we established that the oxygen tension rises steeply from <20 mmHg at 8 weeks of gestation to >50 mmHg at(More)
Miscarriage and pre-eclampsia are the most common disorders of human pregnancy. Both are placental-related and exceptional in other mammalian species. Ultrasound imaging has enabled events during early pregnancy to be visualized in vivo for the first time. As a result, a new understanding of the early materno-fetal relationship has emerged and, with it, new(More)
Unexplained intrauterine growth restriction of the fetus (IUGR) results from impaired placental development, frequently associated with maternal malperfusion. Some cases are complicated further by preeclampsia (PE+IUGR). Here, we provide the first evidence that placental protein synthesis inhibition and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play key roles in(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the role of oxidative stress in two common placental-related disorders of pregnancy, miscarriage and preeclampsia. METHODS Review of published literature. RESULTS Miscarriage and preeclampsia manifest at contrasting stages of pregnancy, yet both have their roots in deficient trophoblast invasion during early gestation. Early after(More)
The placenta of eutherian mammals is a remarkable biological structure. It is composed of both zygote-derived and maternal cells, and mediates the complex interactions between the mother and the fetus that are necessary for fetal growth and survival. While the genetic basis of human placental development and function is largely unknown, its understanding is(More)
Considerable evidence implicates oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of many complications of human pregnancy, and this topic has now become a major focus of both clinical and basic science research. Oxidative stress arises when the production of reactive oxygen species overwhelms the intrinsic anti-oxidant defences. Reactive oxygen species play(More)
A total of 112 human embryos (224 upper limbs) between stages 12 and 23 of development were examined. It was observed that formation of the arterial system in the upper limb takes place as a dual process. An initial capillary plexus appears from the dorsal aorta during stage 12 and develops at the same rate as the limb. At stage 13, the capillary plexus(More)
Physiological conversion of the maternal spiral arteries is key to a successful human pregnancy. It involves loss of smooth muscle and the elastic lamina from the vessel wall as far as the inner third of the myometrium, and is associated with a 5-10-fold dilation at the vessel mouth. Failure of conversion accompanies common complications of pregnancy, such(More)
Oxidative stress is a prominent feature of the placenta in many complications of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia. The cause is primarily unknown, although ischemia-reperfusion injury is one possible mechanism. Our aim was to test this hypothesis by examining the oxidative status of human placental tissues during periods of hypoxia and reoxygenation in(More)